Libmonster ID: UK-1392
Author(s) of the publication: N. A. BERENKOVA


Post-graduate student of IMOMI Lobachevsky UNN

(Nizhny Novgorod)

Keywords: Middle East, Hezbollah, war in Syria, Lebanon, Arab Spring

Currently, representatives of many countries are taking part in the fighting in Syria. The region is not new to the presence of organizations and military groups that have declared the entire Middle East or part of it a zone of their operations. However, the events in Libya and Syria indicate a new level of development of this phenomenon. Let's look at the main reasons that prompted the Lebanese Hezbollah to join the conflict on the side of the Syrian government, and the consequences for Lebanon.

There are several main approaches to analyzing the activities of the Lebanese Hezbollah. According to one of them, the goals of Hezbollah as a radical organization have not been revised since its foundation in the 1980s, only the ways to achieve them change. The main task of Hezbollah was to liberate the territory of Lebanon*, which was called the " Islamic Resistance in Lebanon "(al-muqawama al-Islamiyya fi Lubnan). The term is often used as the name of Hezbollah's military wing.

Other researchers believe that the ideology of Hezbollah has undergone a major change1, as a result of which a political party emerged from the armed group of the civil war**, which accepted the "terms of the game" of Lebanese politics. Revolutionary slogans calling for the abolition of the confessional political system imposed by the colonialists, replacing it with an Islamic state modeled on Iran, were replaced by a pragmatic domestic policy aimed at improving the situation of the Shiite community. Some even predicted a reduction in combat activity after the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000.2

Despite the trend towards integration into the Lebanese political system and increasing attention to internal issues, the party has maintained a close ideological and material connection with Iran. Hezbollah's compliance with Iran's direct instructions remains a controversial issue, as relations have changed over time. However, it is obvious that both actors have common regional interests and coordinate their positions on a number of international issues: the Palestinian issue, the Shiite human rights movement in Bahrain, events in Egypt, etc.

Hezbollah's campaign platforms and policy documents have become more moderate over time.3 Considerable efforts were made to legitimize the "Islamic Resistance in Lebanon" through propaganda in a number of loyal media outlets. The stakes in domestic politics are now too high for Hezbollah, and it has long carefully maintained a position of non-intervention in the armed conflict in Syria, so the open confirmation of its participation in April 20134 is a surprise to many. However, in the light of the events taking place in Iraq, this decision looks quite logical and even prudent.


After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, Hezbollah was formed in the Bekaa Valley on the basis of scattered radical groups that did not agree with the actions of the only Shiite Amal party at that time. The unification took place against the background of growing contacts with Iran, which adhered to the course of exporting the Islamic revolution.

Syria, which actually controlled the Be Valley at that time-

The article was prepared in the framework of the RGNF-supported research project N 14 - 57 - 00002 "The phenomenon of Shiite activism in contemporary International relations in the Middle East".

* As a result of the Israeli operation Peace of the Galilee (First Lebanon War) in 1982, aimed at destroying the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the territory of Southern Lebanon up to the Litani River was occupied and a "security zone"was established. Israeli troops were withdrawn from this territory in 2000.

** The Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1990 was a long-running internal armed sectarian conflict, complicated by the presence of the PLO and other Palestinian groups, as well as by the Syrian and Israeli occupation.

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caa, had a direct but not decisive impact on the emergence of a unified movement: Damascus allowed a detachment of the Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps to enter Baalbek, which began training soldiers of the nascent Hezbollah. At first, contacts between Syria and this group were limited to coordinating security issues, facilitating the movement of weapons from Iran to fight Israeli troops in Lebanon. 5 In one form or another, this vector persists to this day.

After the conclusion of the Taif Agreement 6, a kind of Pax Syriana, and the end of the civil war in 1990, Syria became the recognized guarantor of Lebanon's stability and had an exceptional influence on the internal politics of its neighbor. Hezbollah was de facto allowed to retain its weapons and continue its armed resistance to Israel, without interfering with the Lebanese Government's economic recovery course. Since the Israeli withdrawal from southern Lebanon in 2000, ties have strengthened along the Iran-Syria - Hezbollah axis.

The Cedar Revolution of 2005.7 and the withdrawal of Syrian troops changed the strategic situation in Lebanon for both Hezbollah and Syria. This marked a turning point in the party's internal politics, which "forced" it to compete for seats in the government for the first time. 8 On March 8, 2005, only a few weeks after the assassination of Rafik Hariri,* when anti-Syrian sentiment in Lebanon was at its peak, Hezbollah Secretary General H. Nasrallah spoke out in support of Syria.9 Hezbollah was supposed to oppose the paradigm that was formed in Lebanon and focused on the West and Saudi Arabia, its project, which can be implemented only with the preservation of regional partners. Throughout the 2000s, it was Hezbollah that became the main proponent of this vector of development of the country. Support within Lebanon was achieved through large-scale social projects, including non-denominational ones, individual successes on the border with Israel, and active propaganda of the Islamic resistance.


Hezbollah was optimistic about the Arab Spring events in most of the countries it affected, as they served its regional interests. The criteria according to which the party assessed the popular unrest were formulated on March 25, 2011 by H. Nasrallah: first, the position of the former regime in relation to the Arab-Israeli conflict; second, the desire and possibility of implementing large-scale reforms.10 Despite the uniqueness of the situation in each individual country, Hezbollah regarded the mass unrest in Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain, and Libya as a struggle against tyrannies. The party supported the efforts of Bahraini Shiites to achieve equality in the country's political life. The victory of the Ennahda party in Tunisia, from the point of view of Hezbollah, was an opportunity for Tunisia to find its own political identity and abandon Westernization. In the same way, Hezbollah welcomed the Muslim Brotherhood's success in Egypt, but later disagreed with them on the Syrian issue. Regarding the events in Libya, Hezbollah supported the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi, but condemned Western intervention.11 It should be mentioned that Hezbollah has long blamed Gaddafi for the disappearance and alleged murder in 1978 of Musa al-Sadr, an important figure of the Shiite revival in Lebanon.

Hezbollah's approach to assessing events in neighboring Syria is radically different from the one described above, but it is based on the same criteria. Syria is an integral part of the "resistance front" (Jabhat al-mumaa) Iran-Syria-Hezbollah-Hamas, despite the fact that the Syrian-Israeli border remained calm for a long time. Armed struggle against Israel until the complete liberation of Lebanese territory (including the Shab'a farms area 12) and assistance to the Palestinians in the fight against the occupiers are declared a key goal of Hezbollah. That is why anti-Israeli slogans are placed at the center of the party's patriotic rhetoric. In this regard, Hezbollah positions itself not as a Shiite party in multi-religious Lebanon, but as a national movement.

In Lebanon, a full-fledged culture of resistance has developed, supported by letters of credence.-

* Rafiq Hariri , Prime Minister of Lebanon from 1992 to 1998 and 2000 to 2004. He was killed in a terrorist attack in Beirut on February 14, 2005. A Special International Tribunal for Lebanon was established to investigate the circumstances of his death.

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propaganda efforts: periodic celebrations in memory of the fallen martyrs, publishing activities aimed at a deeper understanding of their history, folk art competitions, social programs, etc. This resonates not only in the Shia community, but also attracts representatives of other communities.

Intervention in the armed conflict in Syria, on the one hand, distracts Hezbollah from its main goal - the protection of southern Lebanon, and on the other - serves this purpose, since a possible regime change in Syria would weaken the party. Syria provides the main transit route for weapons from Iran to Hezbollah.

However, this is not the main reason for Hezbollah's decision to take part in the Syrian war. With the deepening conflict and the emergence of more and more foreign fighters in Syria, it has become clear that the country is turning into an arena of regional confrontation. Groups of Islamic radicals who outstripped the original Syrian opposition in their activity have put the established order of things at risk. Moreover, it is vital for Hezbollah to prevent them from entering Lebanese territory. H. Nasrallah said in one of his speeches: "Some insist that the problem of Lebanon is that Hezbollah went to Syria. I claim that the problem is that [we are] late.<...> if takfiri 13 terrorists win in Syria, all of us will be destroyed. " 14

It should be emphasized that the takfiriism that X mentions. Nasrallah is misinterpreted by many observers and journalists as Sunni Islamism. Still, Hezbollah maintains relations with a number of Sunni Islamist groups. By generalizing Syrian radical groups with the term Takfiri, Hezbollah draws attention to the threat they pose to religious minorities (including Shiites).

Nor can Hezbollah's support for Syria be viewed only in an interfaith dimension. This is by no means support for the Alawite community*, whose representatives occupy an important place in the Syrian political system. The need to protect Shiite holy sites is used to mobilize the Lebanese community, but in general, the party avoids inciting sectarian conflicts, especially in Lebanon. Hezbollah's main motive is not religious, but political. Maintaining the "axis of resistance" and the existing balance of power in the region remains a vital priority.

Therefore, the party approaches the Syrian events in a different way than the Arab Spring as a whole: not as a confrontation between the people and an unjust government, but as attempts by the United States, Israel and their allies to change the regime in Syria.15 Following the logic of Hezbollah, Syria's internal problems could be solved through reforms, while intervention by Western countries pursuing their own interests should be prevented. In this regard, Hezbollah has repeatedly stressed Bashar al-Assad's readiness for reform and dialogue with the opposition.

For a long time, Hezbollah refused to acknowledge its involvement in the conflict, expressing support for the government of Bashar al-Assad only in words. In 2011, H. Nasrallah defined the party's position on the Syrian developments as: prioritizing the stability and security of Syria; calling on the Syrian people to choose the path of dialogue, not confrontation with the government, and allow it to carry out the necessary reforms; non-interference of the Lebanese in the internal affairs of Syria; denial of sanctions promoted by the West and imposed on Lebanon 16. Hezbollah has repeatedly stressed its belief that the conflict will become protracted and hoped to avoid direct involvement, taking for granted the stability of the Syrian regime.


For the first time, information about the presence of Hezbollah in Syria appeared in the media in the second half of 2011. This information was published in resources opposed to Bashar al-Assad and was based on data that should be treated critically, for example, interviews with an anonymous source or dubious videos from YouTube. The party itself has consistently denied such accusations.

However, there is speculation that Hezbollah has launched military operations in Rouhani.-

* In Syria, since Hafez al-Assad (the father of the current Syrian President Bashar al-Assad) came to power in 1970, many government posts are controlled by representatives of the Alawite community close to Shiism.

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Before the summer and autumn of 201217 In October 2012, the funeral of Hezbollah commander Ali Hussein Nassif was held, who, according to the official version, died while performing his "jihad duties". This wording is usually used by the party in cases where it is necessary to report that a fighter was killed not in an open armed confrontation with Israeli soldiers, but for example, if an accident occurred during an exercise 18. At this time, X Nasrallah said that some Lebanese Shiites living in Syria were injured in the clashes, defending themselves from attacks by the opposition.19

In March 2013, the editor-in-chief of the pro-resistance newspaper Al-Akhbar published an article stating that Hezbollah's role in Syria is to support Lebanese residents in border villages; protect the Sa'ida Zeinab Mosque in Damascus; contact members of Druze, Christian, Shi'ite and Ismaili minorities who feel threatened; and protect the security of the Syrian Arab Republic. joint military installations and support for Syrian refugees 20. In a speech on March 29, 2014, Nasrallah acknowledged that 18 months ago (in the fall of 2012), dozens of Hezbollah members took part in the defense of the Sa'ida Zeinab Mosque, which confirms Al-Akhbar's information.

In March 2013, Hezbollah's Deputy Secretary General, Naim Qassem, confirmed in an interview that the party supports the residents of the area near the town of Hermel by providing training and weapons to help them defend their villages and towns. He said that Hezbollah "does not consider this interference in the affairs of Syria, but rather blames Lebanon for the lack of action to protect its citizens."21 In April, Sheikh Nabil Qaouk said that Hezbollah's actions were its moral duty.22 It is obvious that at that time Hezbollah did conduct limited operations in Syria, but at the end of April 2013, circumstances forced the party's leadership to decide on an open, larger-scale participation.

The aggravation of the situation explains the diplomatic activity of Hezbollah Secretary-General H. Nasrallah: in April, he paid a visit to Iran 23 and met with Russian Deputy Foreign Minister M. Bogdanov 24. A few days later, in a televised speech, he said that Hezbollah "will not abandon the Lebanese" and will not allow " Syria to fall into American hands Israel or takfiri groups " 25.

The most spectacular example of Hezbollah's involvement with the Syrian army was the battle for the city of Al-Qusayr in the summer of 2013. It is located near the border with the Bekaa Valley and the Damascus-Homs road. The city was used as a transit point for smuggling weapons and transferring militants. Hezbollah units conducted a full-scale ground operation to clear it, and in early June the city was surrendered.

The success in Al-Qusayr was used by both the Syrian government and Hezbollah to demonstrate their strength: the party's representatives did not speak so openly about other operations. There are reports of Hezbollah's involvement in the battles for Aleppo, Homs, Deraa and Damascus, 26 which have not been officially confirmed. In order to counteract information leakage, the party's representatives do not go into the details of operations.

Important for Hezbollah was gaining control of the Qalamoun area, where many opposition groups crossed after the fall of Al-Qusayr. The operation in the Qalamoun area began in November 2013. Gradually, the Syrian army, moving from north to south, entered the cities of Qara and Nabq. In February-March 2014, the battles for Yabrud followed. The city of Yabrud has become the main training center for operations against Hezbollah. The party has repeatedly claimed that the attacks were planned in Yabroud, and from there the perpetrators entered Lebanon through the Sunni Syrian town of Arsal in the northern Bekaa Valley.27

Observers note that over time, Hezbollah's military tactics in Syria have changed. Now it consists of lightning-fast attacks and intelligence operations that help Bashar al-Assad maintain control, reduce the losses of Hezbollah itself, and eliminate groups planning attacks on Lebanese territory.28

Hezbollah is facing a new enemy: experienced guerrilla groups of opposition fighters and jihadists who are fanatically devoted to their ideas. In the past, the party has conducted extensive combat operations mainly with the regular army of Israel or the army of South Lebanon**. Therefore, Hezbollah is forced to improve its methods of fighting.


In April 2013, for the first time, Hezbollah was included in the list of terrorist organizations of an Arab country, namely Bahrain, which made a decision based on intelligence about operations being prepared on its territory.29 And in June, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Persian Gulf (GCC) announced the introduction of sanctions against residents of the Gulf countries who maintain any contacts with Hezbollah.30 These steps were aimed at countering any assistance to the government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria, as well as at preventing the spread of the Iranian zone of influence in the geopolitical perspective.

Its involvement in the Syrian conflict has also led to a deterioration in Hezbollah's relations with Hamas, with which it has established close cooperation.-

Qalamoun is a mountainous region on the border between Syria and Lebanon, located north of Damascus and bordering the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon .

** The South Lebanon Army is a paramilitary force created with the support of Israel in Southern Lebanon to fight the PLO and Hezbollah.

*** Hamas (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya-Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Islamist movement and political party that gained control of the Gaza Strip. Hamas welcomed the anti-government movements in Syria in 2011.

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cooperation in infrastructure development, arms supply and intelligence 31. However, there are reports of attempts to improve relations within the framework of the Lebanese-Palestinian dialogue.32 During Israel's Operation Enduring Rock in Gaza, * Hezbollah, like Iran, declared solidarity with the Palestinians and support for Hamas. Bashar al-Assad, on the contrary, could not forgive Hamas for supporting the Syrian opposition.

On 22 July 2013, the European Union added Hezbollah's military wing to the list of terrorist organizations, but confirmed that the decision would not "hinder the continuation of dialogue with all political parties in Lebanon." 33 According to Hezbollah's interpretation, the EU succumbed to US pressure.34

The presence of Hezbollah in Syria leads to a change in the situation on the border with Israel. For Hezbollah, the war in Syria is an opportunity, firstly, to improve the methods of conducting military operations, and secondly, to develop new tactics for conducting combat, for example, in urban conditions. Hezbollah has never practiced urban combat, but has been preparing for it.35

Now the party has freedom of movement and access to Syrian weapons, which in the event of a new conflict, lengthens the front for both sides. Hezbollah and Israel are testing the situation with separate strikes in order to find new borders for mutual deterrence. Hezbollah has privatized the role of the army in the South, and it is its actions that actually determine the situation on the border with Israel.

The Lebanese Government has no control over what is happening. After the 2006 war**, despite the rapid changes in the region, the situation on the border between Israel and Lebanon remained stable. Both sides have chosen to build up their forces in anticipation of another inevitable war. Therefore, Israeli strikes on convoys in Syria are an attempt to separate the Syrian front from the Lebanese one. Hezbollah responds to strikes to demonstrate its presence near the border (the Golan Heights), as well as from the Shebaa farms, to show that the Islamic resistance in Lebanon has not weakened. 36

During Israel's Operation Enduring Rock in Gaza, Hezbollah and the Lebanese Government did everything in their power to prevent attacks by pro-Palestinian groups and individuals in northern Israel and to prevent a repeat of the 2006 situation. It seems that the movement is aware of the impossibility of fighting on two fronts in conditions of low security inside Lebanon and beyond. lack of social unity.


At the beginning of April 2014, the number of officially registered UN Syrian refugees in Lebanon reached 1 million 37, with a population of about 4.3 million 38. Most of the refugees are located in the Bekaa Valley 39, the "cradle" of Hezbollah. Due to financial and political constraints, the Lebanese Government has not yet come up with a plan to overcome the crisis, nor has it decided on a common approach to the problem. International organizations only relieve tension, not solve problems.

The sharp increase in the number of refugees is putting pressure on the Lebanese economy and creating tension between them and local residents. 40 Many Lebanese feel that they are paying too high a price to shelter their neighbors. Syrians generally remain out of politics, but for many of them, Hezbollah's intervention in the conflict on one side encourages them to delve into the internal Lebanese contradictions.

The question of establishing permanent refugee camps in Lebanon remains open. It is easier for the UN and other humanitarian organizations to work with organized settlements, but there is a greater likelihood of militarization of the camps in the Palestinian scenario. There are fears that armed groups will enter the country along with the refugees, who, if the fight against the regime is successful, will turn their weapons against Hezbollah. If earlier the flow of weapons was sent from Syria to Hezbollah, now there are cases of arms smuggling from Lebanon. According to the International Crisis Group, in Lebanon, Syrian rebels are finding shelter and medical assistance, especially in Tripoli, Akkar and Sunni parts of the Bekaa Valley.41

Officially, the Lebanese Government adheres to the policy of separating the country from the Syrian crisis, formulated in 2011 by the former Government headed by Najib Mikati. The Baabda Declaration***, signed by the National Dialogue Committee on 11 June 2012, reaffirmed this position: "Lebanon should avoid block politics and regional and international conflicts, and avoid the negative consequences of regional tensions and crises." 42

However, neutrality has not prevented the spread of the Syrian war across the border. Lebanon remains in a state of permanent political crisis: the parliament cannot elect a president, the country has been without a budget for a long time, there is no agreement on the electoral law, and the parliamentary elections themselves can be postponed indefinitely.43

Meanwhile, the civilian population is experiencing the consequences of terrorist attacks.44 As borders are blurred, residents of the border areas also suffer from artillery attacks and raids by the Syrian army against militants. Claims to the territory of Lebanon and threats from the SRT-

* Operation Enduring Rock - an Israeli military operation in the Gaza Strip (July-August 2014), the declared goal of which was to destroy the military infrastructure of the Hamas movement (author's note).

* * Second Lebanon War (July War) 2006 - an armed conflict between Israel and the Lebanese Hezbollah. The reason was an attack by Hezbollah on an Israeli border patrol and the capture of two Israeli soldiers.

* * * Baabda is the administrative center of Mount Lebanon province, where the residence of the country's president is located.

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The Islamic State (IS) forces are increasing tensions within the country.

As for Iraq, where IS has gained a foothold in the north-west, there is no information yet about the presence of Hezbollah fighters, but the party uses harsh rhetoric in relation to events in this country. The actions of the Islamic State led to the relocation of Iranian and Iraqi fighters who were previously in Syria. The situation in the Qalamoun area is escalating again, and Hezbollah is forced to increase its presence on the border between Lebanon and Syria in order to maintain stability. The Lebanese army is also making every possible attempt to ensure the safety of civilians: troops have been deployed to the north of the Bekaa valley. However, these actions are effective only in the case of cooperation with Hezbollah.

Of course, after the involvement of Hezbollah in the Syrian conflict, its support among the population decreased, and not only because people began to die more often. The party's image has been tarnished by a series of corruption scandals. Hezbollah has been actively involved in the Government's activities for almost 10 years, which means that it is equally responsible for its inaction in many areas of domestic policy.

Initially advocating for the improvement of the social situation of the poorest, primarily Shiite, segments of the population, carrying out large-scale social programs, Hezbollah has contributed to the formation of the Shiite stratum, which now needs a stable state. However, in our view, the prospects for stability in Lebanon are slim.

By "diving into the Syrian abyss", Hezbollah has confirmed that its existence depends on the success of this campaign. The war in Syria is perceived by the party as part of the fight against Takfiriism and, indirectly, with Israel and the West. It is concerned about structural changes in the region and wants to reduce their impact. It is unacceptable for it to weaken Iran in the event of a victory for pro-Saudi forces in Syria, this will directly affect the security and internal processes of Lebanon, which, like a litmus test, reflects any changes in the region.


Norton R. 1 Hezbollah: A Short History. NJ, Princeton University Press. 2007; Warn M. Staying the Course: the "Lebanonization" of Hezbollah - the integration of an Islamist movement into a pluralist political system // Al-Mashriq - lebanon/300/320/324/324.2/hizballah/warn2 /index.html; Alagha J. The Shifts in Hezbollah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Programm. Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Press. 2006.

Fuller G.E., Francke R.R. 2 The Arab Shi'a: The Forgotten Muslims. NY, St. Martin Press. 1999.

Berenkova N. A., Kornilov A. A. 3 The idea of the Islamic State in the political ideology and program of the Hezbollah organization // RUDN University Bulletin. Series: International Relations, Moscow, 2013, p. 32. (Berenkova N. A., Kornilov A. A. 2013. Ideya islamskogo gosudarstva v politicheskoi ideologii i programme organizatsii Hezbolla // Vestnik RUDN. Seriya: mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya. M.) (in Russian)

Hashem A. 4 Hezbollah Leader 'Will Not Let Syria Fall' / Al-Monitor - html#

Qassem N. 5 Hizbullah: The Story from Within. London, SAQI. 2005, p. 240.

6 Taif Agreement - "National Unity Agreement", adopted in 1989 in Taif, Saudi Arabia. The Treaty was intended to create a platform for ending the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-1990 and define a framework for political reform. It provided for the disarmament of all groups on the territory of Lebanon and secured the special status of Syrian-Lebanese relations.

7 Cedar Revolution of 2005-mass protests against Syrian interference in the internal politics of Lebanon, for the withdrawal of Syrian troops from the country's territory and the change of government. The reason for the demonstration was the assassination of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri. The Cedar Revolution led to the withdrawal of Syrian troops from all of Lebanon. author's note).

Fayad A. 8 Hezbollah waad-dawla al-lubaniyah: al-muwaima beina al-istratijiya al-wataniyah waad-dur al-iqlimi / / Mubadara al-islah al-Arabi (Hezbollah and the Lebanese State: coordination of the national strategy and regional role / / Arab Reform Initiative). August 2006. N 11, p. 3 -

9 Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah's speech made at Riad Solh Square on Tuesday, March 8, 2005 // Campaign for Good Governance in Lebanon - id=46225

10 The speech delivered by Hizbullah Secretary General Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah on the Resistance and Liberation Day on May 25th, 2011 // Alahednews -

Rida N. 11 War Crime vs War Crime...West eing riches exploitation // Alahednews - php?eid-15486&cid-540#.U8uuCbH8650

12 The Shebaa farms are a disputed territory located between Syria, Lebanon and Israel. The dispute over this territory arose due to the fact that the Lebanese-Syrian border was not demarcated. The UN and Israel classify the Shebaa farms as part of the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. However, Lebanon considers them its territory and demands the withdrawal of Israeli troops from them. author's note).

13 Takfirism is a radical trend in Islam that allows one group of Muslims to accuse another of disbelief. Extreme Salafis are often considered Takfiri, although being a fundamentalist trend in Islam, Salafism does not always imply permission for takfir. In particular, "Hezbollah" refers to the Takfiri group "Islamic State", noted for its brutal actions against Shiites, Christians, Kurds and their shrines (author's note).

14 Sayyed Nasrallah's Full Speech at Launch of Jabal Amel Forum on March 29, 2014 // Alahednews - 56#.U0_T7Pl_uco

Haidar M. 15 Sayyed Nasrallah: Hezbollah Against STL Funding, Syria Overcomes Danger / Al-manar - english/adetails.php?fromval=1&cid-23&eid-32596&frid-23

16 Nasrallah's speech on May 25th, 2011 (cm. ch. 10).

Slim R. 17 Hezbollah's Plunge into the Syrian Abyss // Foreign Policy. May 28, 2013 - 2013/05/28/hezbollah_s_plunge_into_the_syr ianabyss; Blanford N. Hezbollah role in Syria grows more evident // The Daily Star - 012/Oct-12/191121-hezbollah-role-in-syria-grows-more-evident.ashx#axzz2zVcw8ABc

Blanford N. 18 Op. cit.

19 Too close for comfort: Syrians in Lebanon // Middle East Report. 13 May 2013, N 141, p. 26 - Files/Middle%20East%20North%20Africa/ Iraq%20Syria%20Lebanon/Lebanon/141-too-close-for-comfort-syrians-in-lebanon.pdf

Al-Amin I. 20 Hezbollah's Role in Syria // Al-Akhbar - node/15326

21 Naib amin am Hezbollah yuakidu saa al-hizb li mana al-fitna wa muhasaratikha ila Aqsa Had (Deputy Secretary General of Hezbollah confirms the party's maximum efforts to prevent division and its blockade) / / Al-Anbaa - - 03-2013

22 Defending Lebanese in Syria is a moral duty: Hezbollah // The Daily Star - 2013/Apr-22/214626-defending-lehanese-in-syria-is-a-moral-duty-hezbollah.ashx#ixzz2z X4sbrhV

23 Exc. Photo of the Day: Imam Khamenei Receives Sayyed Nasrallah // Alahednews - php?eid=22842&cid=269#.UlZXnfl_vDE

24 Nasrallah discussed with Bogdanov the situation in Lebanon and Syria // - hezb ru 107.html

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Hashem A. 25 Op. cit.

26 Hezbollah preparing for 'Battle for Damascus' // Arutz Sheva 7 -http://www.israelnationalnews.eom/News/News.aspx/173445#.U2Dc8 vluco; Report: Hezbullah Fighters Advance to Syria-Jordan Border // Naharnet -

27 Hezbollah's involvement in the Civil War in Syria // The Meir Amit ITIC - E_058_14_1466125294.pdf

28 Hezbollah develops new tactics in Syrian civil war // Haaretz -http://www.haaretz.eom/news/middle-east/l.585372

29 Bahrain first Arab country to blacklist Hezbollah as terrorist organization // Al-Arabia - middle-east/2013/04/09/Bahrain-first-Arab-country-to-blacklist-Hezbollah-as-terrorist-organi zation.html

30 Ala waqaa awda baada al-lubnaniin wa rabatuha bikarara majlis at-taawn "Ibad almuntasibin li Hezbollah" (On the return of part of the Lebanese by the GCC decision on the "deportation of individuals associated with Hezbollah") / / Al-Rai - Articles. aspx?id=419348

Abu Shawar R. 31 Hasarat Hamas (The Loss of Hamas) / / Al-Quds Al-Arabi -

32 Masaa li wafiqa tufahim beina Hezbollah wa al-qaoua al-is-lamiyya al-falastiniyya (Efforts to conclude an agreement of understanding between Hezbollah and the Palestinian Islamic Forces) / / Al-Rai -

33 Council amends EU terrorist list // Council of the European Union - pressdata/EN/foraff/138396.pdf

34 EU bows to US pressure, Blacklists military wing of Hezbollah // Al Manar -

Blanford N. 35 Hezbollah applies new training practices in Syria // The Daily Star -


36 Qiyadiyoun fi Hezbollah li Al-Rai: naraddu min al-julan lilkul innana khadiroun lilharb (Hezbollah leaders to Al-Rai newspaper: we respond from the Golan Heights to say that we are present in the war) / / Al-Rai - Articles. aspx?id=492073

37 Syrian Refugees in Lebanon surpass One Million // UNHCR -

38 The Demographic profile of Lebanon // Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia - members/lebanon.pdf

39 Syria Regional Refugee Response // UNHCR

Shibli R. 40 Reconfiguring relief mechanisms: The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon // Refugee Research and Policy in the Arab World Program - Documents/research_reports/20140224ifi_pc_unrwa.pdf

41 Too close for comfort.., p. 18.

42 Iayalyan baabda assadir an khayati l-hiwar / / Raisatu l-jum-huriya al-lubnaniya (Baabda Declaration on the results of the dialogue)- 4483

Mroueh W. 43 Presidential crisis imperils parliamentary elections // The Daily Star - perils-parliamentary-elections.ashx#axzz3FSmOq86K

44 22.10.2012-assassination of General Wissam al-Hassan; 15.08.2013-explosion in the Gobeiri area; 19.11.2013-explosion at the Iranian embassy in Beirut; 27.12.2013-murder of former Minister M. Shatah; 2.01.2014 - explosion in the Haret Hreik area of Beirut; 30.03.2014-suicide attack on a checkpoint in the Bekaa valley, etc.


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N. A. BERENKOVA, HEZBOLLAH'S SYRIAN WAR // London: British Digital Library (ELIBRARY.ORG.UK). Updated: 29.11.2023. URL: (date of access: 19.04.2024).

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Jack Dowly
London, United Kingdom
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29.11.2023 (141 days ago)
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