Libmonster ID: UK-1447

T. L. DEITCH

Candidate of Historical Sciences

V. A. USOV

Candidate of Historical Sciences

Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Angola Keywords:AfricaBRICSinvestmentsloanstrade

The twenty-first century has witnessed the steady growth of many African countries. The economic recovery was stimulated by an increase in demand for raw materials, which contributed to a dynamic increase in investment inflows. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), sub-Saharan Africa saw average economic growth of 5% in 2010 and 5.5%in 2011.1 Economists at the South African Standard Bank, in a report on the African economy, expressed the opinion that the continent's countries largely owe changes in their economic landscape to the activities of new players in Africa. 2 It is hard to disagree with this conclusion.

Indeed, with economic development and increasing involvement in pro-globalization, the role of relations between African countries and the "rising" states of the world, primarily with China, India and Brazil, is steadily growing. Each of these countries has its own history of relations with the countries of the continent. In addition, all of them, along with Russia and South Africa, are members of the BRICS group, which, especially after South Africa joined in 2011, has high hopes as a new participant that can help modernize African countries and help accelerate the development of their economies and human potential.

After the end of a long-term bloody civil war in Angola (1975-2002), the country needed recipes for accelerated economic recovery. In order to achieve this goal more successfully, the young state was ready to use its main and, in fact, only wealth - natural resources, primarily oil, which was positively perceived by the" rising " countries, whose rapidly growing economy was experiencing a need for resources.

AS ELSEWHERE IN AFRICA, LEADS THE WAY

China's relations with Angola have not been easy. The explanation for this is to be found in the history of the struggle of the Angolan people against the Portuguese colonialists. During the national liberation movement, China provided assistance to the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), anti - colonial organizations that competed for power in the country with the National Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), supported by the Soviet Union. So, in 1974, the FNLA was sent 450 tons of weapons. 112 Chinese instructors provided military training to its fighters in training camps in the former Zaire territory.3

When Angola gained independence in November 1975 and the MPLA came to power, China refused to recognize the country, continuing to support the FNLA and UNITA. Later, in the interests of normalizing relations with Angola, China cut ties with the FNLA, and then with UNITA, which joined the armed struggle against the new government. However, even in the 1990s, the press reported on the supply of Chinese weapons through the former Zaire to the UNITA-controlled territory in Angola. Thus, in April 1993, the Angolan Government seized Chinese weapons from UNITA, which was based in the northern part of the country. However, the Chinese Embassy in Luanda rejected accusations that it continues to supply weapons to UNITA 4.

Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established only in 1983, but for another 20 years, China's role in Angola remained rather modest.

In 2002, in dire need of funds to rebuild an economy ravaged by a long civil war, Angola began loan negotiations with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which demanded that the country take measures to fight corruption and improve economic governance in exchange for providing funds. Soon, the Angolan government abruptly interrupted the negotiations. The reason was the Chinese Eximbank's offer of a credit line on terms favorable for Angola. The package of agreements included contracts for the PRC to perform construction work as part of the country's reconstruction programs. At the same time, Chinese companies received the lion's share of contracts.5 This angered local businesses, as only 30% of contracts were awarded to Angolan firms, while the construction sector was one of the areas where many Angolans hoped to find work.6 Angolan fears were justified. Soon, 2.5 thousand Chinese arrived in the country for

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work for companies whose activities were financed by a loan provided by Beijing. It was expected that the number of Chinese workers will grow to 3 thousand 7 Their influx negatively affected the state of the Angolan labor market.

However, the Angolan Government expressed satisfaction, first of all, that the loans were provided without any preconditions and did not have to meet the requirements of the IMF.8

In 2004. Eximbank approves first $2 billion financing package for the implementation of investment projects. The loan was granted for 12 years at 1.5% per annum with a three-year grace period divided into two phases (approximately $1 billion was allocated for each). The first phase - from December 2004 to March 2007-included the implementation of 31 contracts for projects in the fields of energy, water supply, health, education, communications and public works (a total of 50 projects worth $1.1 billion). During the second phase (since March 2007), 52 projects were expected to be implemented under 17 contracts, as well as the completion of unfinished projects of the first phase. Priority was given to the development of education, fisheries and telecommunications.9 By the end of 2007, according to the Angolan Ministry of Finance, almost $837 million had been used from the first phase of the project and $237 million from the second phase.10

In December 2007, China and Angola signed a framework agreement for the second package of cooperation projects. 11 In 2008, Angola was promised a new loan of $4.5 billion. to create a number of infrastructure facilities. In March 2009, a $1 billion loan was announced to the country. for the development of agriculture.

The global financial and economic crisis has negatively affected the Angolan strategy of diversification of cooperation partners. Loans from international financial markets declined, while oil revenues fell by 39%12. Under these circumstances, China has found itself in a unique position as a source of financing for the country's development projects. At the end of 2009, China extended three new credit lines to Angola: $6 billion from Eximbank, $1.5 billion from the China Development Bank, and $2.5 billion from the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China.13 Together, the loans totaled $10 billion, adding to previous loans that made Angola one of the largest recipients of Chinese aid.

Angola is the main focus of Beijing's African oil strategy. In 2004, Angola became the third oil supplier to China after Saudi Arabia and Iran. In 2005, with 17.65 million tons of oil exported to China, it surpassed Iran; Angola accounted for 45.5% of Chinese oil imports from Africa. And in the first half of 2008, Angola temporarily surpassed Saudi Arabia: the volume of oil imported by China was already 23.45 million tons. In 2008, Angolan oil accounted for more than 18% of all Chinese oil imports14.

China (Sinopec) and Angola (Sonangol), state-owned oil companies, have formed a joint venture (JV) in which Sinopec has a 55% stake. During the first round of licensing conducted by the Angolan Government in 2005-2006, Sinopec expanded its position in the Angolan oil market. In May 2006. Three stakes in ultra-deepwater blocks were transferred to the joint venture; the share price was the highest ever offered for oil fields.

In addition to joint oil production, Sinopec and Sonangol have formed a consortium to build a new oil refinery in Lobito. However, in early 2007, the project was suspended, which negatively affected relations between the two companies.15 At the end of the same year, Sinopek's attempt to obtain a license for the block, which was put forward for the 2nd round of licensing in 2007/2008, failed, as in 2009. In the face of intense competition with Western firms, Sinopec and another Chinese oil company, CNOOC, also failed to acquire a part of the Angolan oil field in 2009, which is owned by the American firm Marathon with a 30% stake.

In less than 10 years, China has managed to become the largest buyer of Angolan oil, but it is still struggling to strengthen its position in the country's oil sector. The share of China in it is growing, but at the same time the shares of India, South Africa and Brazil are also increasing, while this indicator is falling for the EU countries, with the exception of Portugal. The Angolan leadership has consistently expressed its unwillingness to rely on a single partner, preferring to take advantage of the advantages offered by competition between the world's leading oil importers in the Angolan market.

Angola also has a number of diamond deposits awaiting development, and according to the Angolan Ambassador to China, Garcia Byers, the country welcomes Chinese investors who are ready to establish joint ventures in this sector.16

Today, the former Portuguese colony occupies an important place in Beijing's African politics. The Macau Forum initiative, a forum for trade and economic cooperation between China and Portuguese-speaking countries, launched by Beijing in 2003, has played a role in strengthening bilateral relations. In this case, the return of the Macao Special Administrative Region, which was previously a Portuguese colony, to the bosom of China was used. In 2007, Angola opened consulates in Hong Kong and Macau, and in 2008 in Shanghai. Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos visited Beijing twice, in 1998 and in 2008.

The first trade agreement between the two countries was signed in 1984. A bilateral trade and economic commission was established in 1988, but its first meeting was held only in December 1999, the second in May 2001, and the third in March 2007. 17

China-Angola trade totaled $1.8 billion in 2000, $4.91 billion in 2004, and $25.3 billion in 2007.18 In 2007, China surpassed Brazil and South Africa to become Angola's second - largest trading partner after Portugal. 19

During the global financial crisis-

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During the economic crisis, the volume of Sino-Angolan trade declined slightly, then rose again, reaching $24.8 billion in 2010,20 and $27.6 billion in 2011,21. Today, Angola is the most important Portuguese-speaking partner of China, the second largest trading partner of the PRC on the continent after South Africa, and the main African exporter to China. 22 The PRC reduces its trade with Angola with a negative balance. In the first four months of 2012, Chinese exports to Angola totaled $9.3 billion, while imports totaled$11.4 billion.23 Since January 2011, the Chinese Government has reduced tariffs on 466 products exported from Angola to China. 24 The opening of a Chamber of Commerce in Luanda in 2006, with the assistance of 26 Chinese companies operating in the country, is evidence of the growing Chinese presence in Angola.

At the same time, bilateral trade faces a number of challenges. Oil is almost the only Angolan product entering the Chinese market. In 2010, the then Deputy Prime Minister visited Angola. Chinese President Xi Jinping, who called on local businessmen to diversify their exports to China to include agricultural products, seafood, and diamonds.25

The "Angolan method" of entering into package agreements involving not only the extraction and export of raw materials, but also the construction of infrastructure and other development projects, opened the way for Chinese companies to enter the former Portuguese colony. The Angolan Council of Ministers approved the activities of China's ZTE Corporation in the country, which invested $400 million in the local economy. Of these, $300 million will be spent on modernizing and expanding the country's telephone network, and $100 million will be spent on other projects, including the creation of a mobile phone factory and a telecommunications training institute for Angolan employees. 26

In 2006, Chinese International Fund Ltd. It received a $300 million contract to restore the 1,350-km Benguela Railway , the country's main transport artery linking the port of Lobito on the Atlantic Ocean with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia. During the civil war, this road lost 34 locomotives, and in 2005 - 2006, 8 locomotives were delivered to Angola by one of the Chinese companies27.

Major projects implemented in Angola with Chinese assistance include a new airport and railway linking Luanda with Malange in the central part of the country; the reconstruction of Luena Airport in Moshiko Province, where a new runway was opened at the end of 2009. Chinese companies have taken over the reconstruction of the water and electricity supply system in Dondo (Northern Lunda). They build roads and bridges, schools and shops, and implement low-cost housing projects. All this shows that China is ready to take part in the priority task for the Angolan Government of building infrastructure destroyed during the war.

It should be noted that Beijing is satisfied with the level of political stability in the country, which is strengthened, in particular, by the adoption of a new constitution in Angola in January 2010, which provides for the current President Eduardo dos Santos to stay in power until 2020.

The growing presence of the Chinese in Angola has often caused discontent among the local population, as Western companies mainly used Angolan personnel, and Chinese companies brought their own workers. 28 However, in recent years, the situation has begun to change. Thus, in 2010, according to a Chinese engineer working in Angola, a construction contractor in Luanda employed 70 Chinese workers and 500-600 local workers.

According to Vasco Martinez, a Portuguese researcher, there is no reason to conclude that China is actively infiltrating the political and cultural life of Angola, since the local elite is sensitive to any attempts to control the situation in the country or turn it into their "client" .30 However, it is hardly possible to deny the growing influence of China and the importance of its position in Angola. The Angolan ambassador to China called Beijing "a true friend of Africa" and noted that Africa can develop successfully with Chinese assistance provided "without any political conditions." 31 "If this is not a marriage," writes Vasco Martinez, "it is a fairly fruitful friendship." 32

There is also military-technical cooperation between the two countries. In May 2010, the head of the General Staff of the PLA (People's Liberation Army of China) visited Luanda, during which an agreement was signed providing for China's assistance to Angola in training military personnel and upgrading weapons.33 And in November 2011, a bilateral meeting was held in Luanda, where they discussed the programs to be implemented in the field of military-technical cooperation. Angolan Minister of National Defense C. P. Wang-Dongem called the visit of the Chinese military delegation to Angola an important step in deepening defense cooperation between the two countries:"This meeting will lay the foundation for implementing projects in the areas of personnel training, technical assistance and infrastructure development for the Angolan armed forces." 34

INDIA IS KEEN TO KEEP UP

India's political and economic cooperation with Angola dates back to the colonial period: India supported Angola's struggle for independence from Portuguese colonial rule, and later, in 1989-1997, participated in three UN missions to establish a peace process in this country. In 1986, Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited Angola, and a year later Angolan leader Jose dos Santos returned to India. The exchange of official visits became particularly intense in the 2000s, which was a natural consequence of the increased level of economic cooperation between the two countries. In 2009, within the framework of the Group of Eight summit in L'Aquila, Italy, a meeting was held between Indian Prime Minister M. Singh and Angolan President J. E. dos Santos. A total of 5 significant visits took place from 2007 to 2012

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representatives of the Indian official and business circles to Angola and at least 12 visits of Angolan ministers and heads of Angolan state-owned companies to India 35.

India, whose economy is actively developing, like China, needs stable supplies of energy raw materials. At the present stage, India's relations with Angola are mainly concentrated in the energy and gem mining sectors. A number of bilateral talks were devoted to cooperation in these two areas.

Indian Minister of Commerce D. Ramesh visited Angola on 28 March-1 April 2008 (as part of a 10-member delegation) and met with the Ministers of Geology and Mines, Petroleum, Deputy Prime Minister for Foreign Affairs and President of the Endiama diamond mining company, as well as held talks with the Angolan Minister of Commerce.36

On January 25-27, 2010, Indian Minister of Oil and Gas Industry M. Deora visited Angola (as part of a 9-member delegation), during which a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Indian State oil company ONGC Videsh Ltd. and the Angolan oil company Sonangol on cooperation in Angola, India and third countries37. In October 2010, a memorandum of understanding was signed between the Angolan Ministry of Oil and the Indian Ministry of Oil and Natural Gas. Following the negotiations, the Indian company was offered to establish a joint venture for the development of deep-water oil fields, as well as participate in subsequent tenders for the development of Angolan oil fields. The parties agreed to start preparing a framework agreement on cooperation in oil production 38.

In addition, the Indian state-owned company Indian Oil Corporation, which is engaged in oil refining, offered the Angolan side assistance in re-equipment of existing enterprises in the industry, as well as in maintaining Angolan oil pipelines in working order. The Angolan side expressed interest in the participation of this company in the construction of new oil refineries.39

Another company is GAIL India Ltd. It expressed its willingness to participate in the development of Angolan natural gas fields and offered its assistance and assistance in training Angolan personnel in technologies related to the extraction, transportation and distribution of gas, as well as in the development of projects aimed at gas supply to Angolan cities. As part of the negotiations, India was invited to participate in the training of local personnel for a Bhutanese mining facility under construction in the Soyo region of North Kwanzaa Province.

India, like China, is eager to participate in infrastructure development. In 2005, it began its cooperation with Angola in the development of railway communication. The Government of India has allocated a loan of $40 million for the reconstruction of railways 41. The project, carried out by the Indian State-owned railway company Rites, included assistance to Angola in training personnel, as well as technical assistance and equipment: 41 passenger cars, 3 diesel locomotives and other equipment 42. This interstate project was completed in August 2007, providing a link between the cities of Lubango and Pedrera. Chinese workers laid rails and set up a signalling system, while India provided rolling stock and trained personnel. The possibility of implementing the second phase of the project is currently being considered. India's Eximbank intends to provide Angola with a credit line of $55.9 million for the supply of diesel locomotives and other equipment, as well as for the training of personnel.43

Since the end of the Angolan Civil War, Indian-Angolan trade has expanded markedly, mainly due to the growth of Indian exports. In 2006-2007. its volume amounted to $445.7 million, in 2010 - 2011 - $5.8 billion. (at the same time, Angolan imports from India reached $5.1 billion, and exports - $683 million) 44.

India's main exports to Angola are tractors and vehicles, agricultural machinery, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, tea, rice (basmati), meat, beverages, processed leather, and paper products.45

Since 2005, an office of the Indian State Bank has been operating in Luanda, offering Angola credit lines of $5, $10 and $13.8 million. for the purchase of tractors and other agricultural machinery. The Government of India has approved an additional loan of $30 million for the creation of an industrial park and $15 million for the construction of a cotton processing factory.46

In addition to state-owned companies, private Indian corporations such as Tata, Mahindra & Mahindra and others operate in Angola. They are most noticeable in the pharmaceutical sector, paper and cardboard production, plastic processing, etc. 47

An important area of bilateral cooperation is India's assistance in training Angolan specialists. Within the framework of the Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation program, Angola has been given the opportunity to train its specialists in India, and Indian specialists (in English, audit, accounting, etc.) are sent to Angola to train local personnel. 48

India provides assistance to the state-owned company Endiama in the field of mining and processing of precious stones. Angolan students are trained in Surat, one of the centers of the Indian gem processing industry 49. India is also assisting Angola in training naval personnel (in southern India), the diplomatic corps (in Delhi) and 50 firefighters.

In 2011, after returning from a tour of Asian countries, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Angola, J. Chikoti announced that India will soon provide a new credit line of $200 million. According to media reports, a significant part of these funds should go to the restoration of dams. India is also interested in expanding its participation in the reconstruction of the energy sector and

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water supply. These issues are still being negotiated, and no agreement has yet been reached.51

To date, there are no bilateral economic agreements between the two countries at the governmental level. At the same time, a fundamental decision was made to conclude an agreement in the field of investment promotion and protection, as well as to establish a bilateral commission on cultural, technical, scientific and economic cooperation.52

BRAZIL IS A LONGTIME ALLY OF ANGOLA

In the 1940s and 1950s, Brazil supported Portuguese colonialism and only in the 1960s began to show interest in the process of decolonization. Although it became the first country to recognize the independence of Angola on November 11, 1975, the period of its active "return" to Africa began only in the 1990s.

The most prominent was the Brazilian presence on the continent, primarily in Angola, in the new millennium. Suffice it to say that between 2003 and 2010, Brazilian President Lula da Silva made 33 trips to Africa, visiting 23 countries, including Angola. In 2011, the new President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, visited Angola (since 2010).

Angola is Brazil's largest trading partner and main importer in Africa. From 2005 to 2009, the trade turnover between Brazil and Angola increased from $520 million to $1.5 billion.53

From 2007 to 2011 Brazil has provided more than $3 billion in loans to Angola. Funds were used for reconstruction projects of roads, dams and bridges 54.

Angola, along with South Africa, is the largest recipient of Brazilian investment. The volume of Brazilian FDI (foreign direct investment) in this country in 2009 amounted to $124 million (WB data from 2012). They were directed to energy, mining, infrastructure 55.

The Brazilian bank BNDES plays an active role in Angola. In 2006, it provided a credit line for the establishment of an ethanol production facility.

Petrobras, an oil company that has been operating in Angola since 2008 and has been producing oil in the deep-water fields of that country and several other countries on the continent, plans to increase its investment in Africa to $3 billion in 2013, with Angola and Nigeria accounting for the lion's share.56

Odebrecht, a Brazilian industrial conglomerate, has been operating in Angola for over 25 years. It is the largest contractor for war-torn infrastructure restoration projects. The company's accumulated investments in this country are estimated at $600 million. One of its first projects was the construction of a dam in Kapanda (Malanga province). The company also owns a stake in the Catoca diamond mining company (Angola), which is also a shareholder of the Russian company Alrosa. In addition, Odebrecht builds housing, implements urban planning, invests in infrastructure projects, and builds hydroelectric power plants in Angola. An important advantage of the company, which distinguishes it favorably from Chinese enterprises, is its willingness to hire local staff. As a result, it became the largest private employer in the country 57.

The company "Andrade Gutierrez" is engaged in the construction of roads, housing, urban planning in Angola. Another company, Camargo Correa, opened a branch in 2006 and signed a number of contracts for the implementation of projects for the planning and construction of houses, roads, power lines, and cement production. In 2011, it was announced that Camargo Correa would build a road and create drainage infrastructure. Civil engineering in Angola is also carried out by the company "Cueiros Galvao".

One of the largest Brazilian companies, Vail, has had a branch in Angola since 2004 and is engaged in the exploration of copper and nickel deposits.

The country has the largest number of Brazilian medium and small businesses in Africa. In 2009, through the Angolan National Private Investment Agency and the Brazilian Industrial Development Agency, the two countries began to internationalize them. Currently, many such Brazilian enterprises are already operating in Angola, while others are about to start operating. Many of them are employed in agriculture (30% of their output remains in the country).

The Brazilian Export and Import Promotion Agency (APEX-BRAZIL) opened a business center 58 in Angola in December 2010. This is the 8th APEX business center in the world. The Brazilian Ministry of Commerce and APEX have jointly established a trade mission in the country involving 25 Brazilian companies.59

In 2010, the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs organized courses for African diplomats, which were attended by employees from Angola. (In 2011, such courses were attended by diplomats from 12 countries of the continent.)

The country also has a Brazilian malaria control program in place.

Compared to other "rising" powers, Brazil has a number of advantages in Angola. First of all, it is the absence of a language barrier. In addition, almost 90 million Brazilians (out of the country's population of 193.4 million in 2012) have African roots, which also creates opportunities for mutual understanding. It should also be borne in mind that this Latin American country is rich in resources and its policy does not have a pronounced "raw material character", which China and India constantly reproach.

In Angola, which has experienced economic growth over the past decade and an expanding middle class that makes up 38.1% of the country's population, the Brazilian way of life is popular (partly thanks to Latin American soap operas). Flights from Luanda to Rio de Janeiro or Sao Paulo can be booked in advance: Angolan tourists are eager to visit Brazil and buy Brazilian goods. At the same time, the activities of Brazilian companies in Angola, although they meet with a more favorable attitude than those of Chinese ones, are also criticized. Angolans complain about Brazilians ' lack of knowledge of African languages-

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their inexperience in business. Brazilians, in turn, are deterred by African corruption.

* * *

In summary, all three emerging market economies are increasingly active in Africa as a whole, and in particular in Angola, which has large oil reserves. Although all these countries are BRICS members, at this stage their policies are determined more by competition than by the desire for concerted action, although there are some changes in this area.

Each of the three States seeks to use its existing advantages to strengthen its position in Angola. However, the Government of the country tries to diversify sources of aid and investment and expand cooperation with various partners, without giving preference to any of them, and puts the national interests of the country at the forefront of relations with any State.

In general, it is impossible not to recognize the growing role of the "rising" troika in the recovery of the Angolan economy: in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, the creation of industry and the intensification of agriculture in the country. Thanks in large part to the participation of these States, Angola is successfully implementing its national development strategy.


1 World Economic Outlook: Hopes realities, Risks, p. 2 // IMF. April 2013.

Gaunt J. 2 Building BRIC's in Africa // Macroscope. November 23, 2010 - http://blogs/reuter.com/macroscope.2010/11/23/building-brics-in-africa

Taylor Ian. 3 China and Africa. Engagement and Compromise. L., 2006.

Campos Indira, Vines Alex. 4 Angola and China. A Pragmatic Partnership. Working Paper presented at a CSIS Conference. Prospects for Improving U.S. -China-Africa Cooperation. December 5, 2007. Center for Strategic and International Studies. Wash. (CSIS). 2008. P. 3.

Corkin Lucy. 5 Uneasy allies: China's evolving relations with Angola // Journal of Contemporary African Studies. V. 29. N 2. April 2011, p. 169 - 180.

6 Le Monde Diplomatique...

7 Le Monde, 6.07.2005.

8 Xinhua News Agency (IBAS) Newsletter. Beijing, 24.01.2006.

Campos Indira, Vines Alex. 9 Op. cit.

10 Ibid. P. 6.

11 http://www.meds.ru/deault.asp

Alves Ana Cristina. 12 A Brief analysis of China's oil interests in Angola // The China Monitor. Issue 54. Oil Energy and Power in Sino-Angolan Relations. Centre for Chinese Studies. Stellenbosch University. August 2010, p. 6.

13 EIU. Angola Country Report. September 2009, p. 8.

Campos Indira, Vines Alex. 14 Op. cit. P. 12.

Stanley Reed. 15 A Bidding frenzy for Angola's oil. June 7, 2006 -http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/juin2006/gb2006060 7.581473.htm

Jiabao Li. 16 Angola's social development drives up trade with China // Asia Pacific. March 28, 2012 - http://www.chinadailyapac.com/ article/angolas-social-dcvelopment-drives-trade-china

Campos Indira, Vines Alex. 17 Op. cit.

18 Africa-China trading relationship. Tralac. Trade law centre for Southern Africa - www.gtis.com/gta; China pledges 20 bn. doll. In credit for Africa at summit // BBC news Online. 19.07.2012.

19 Ibid.

20 China pledges 20 bn doll. ...

21 Angola-China trade rises 44% in first four months of 2012 // Trade mark Southern Africa. June 14, 2012 - http://www.trademarks/org/ news/Angola-china-trade-rises-44-first-four-months-2012

22 Direction of Trade Statistics. Yearbook. IMF, 2006, p. 136.

23 Ibid.

24 China-Angola trade relations get problematic. February 5, 2009 -http://corporatcforeignpolicy.com/africa/china-angola-trade-relations-get-problematic

25 China pledges to help Angola in diversifying export in bilateral trade // People's Daily online. January 14, 2011.

Rocha John. 26 A new frontier in the exploitation of Africa's natural resources // Pambazuka News. African Perspectives on China in Africa. Part 1. 15.12.2006 - http://pambazuka.org

27 afro. Russian-African Business Magazine. 2007. N 2 (21).

Horta Loro. 28 China-Africa: Development partner or neo-colonizer? // Special Global Edition. November 29, 2009.

29 China in Africa: The real story. Chinese entrepreneurs and workers in Africa: an Angola Story. August 15, 2010 - http://www.chinaafricareal-story.com

Martines Vasco. 30 Angola and China: building friendship through infrastructure. Portuguese Institute of International Relations and Security (IPRIS). May 2011.

Taylor Ian. 31 China's oil diplomacy in Africa // International Affairs. 2006. V. 82. N 5, p. 938.

Martines Vasco. 32 Op. cit.

33 Angola, China strengthen military cooperation // Angola Press, May 26, 2010.

34 Angola and China analyze state of military cooperation // ANGOP Politics. 18.11.2011.

35 India-Angola relations - http://fsi.mea.gov.in/Portal/Foreign-Relations/Angola-January-2012.pdf

36 Angola-India-Angola relations. Political - http://www.mdem-angola.org/angola_political.html

37 India, Angola to sign deal on hydrocarbon sector -http://www.indiaafricaconnect.in/index.php9param-news/497/business -industry/107

38 India-Angola relations...

39 India, Angola to sign deal...

40 Angola: Relations with India on right track - Says diplomat. September 14, 2010. ANGOP Society - www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/ enus/noticias/sociedade/2010/8/37/Relations-with-India-right-track-says-Angolan-diplomat...

41 Angola-India-Angola Relations. Rites Projects - http://www.in-demangola.org/rites_projects.html

42 Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44 India-Angola relations...

45 Angola/India trading estimated at USD 5 billion. September 16, 2010 - http:///portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/politica/ 2010/ 8/37/Angola_India...

46 India-Angola relations...

47 Ibidem.

48 Angola-India-Angola relations. Economic & Commercial -http://www.indemangola.org/angolaeconomic_commercial.html

49 Angola: Relations with India on right track...

50 Ibidem.

51 India opens new credit line to finance projects in Angola. February 28, 2011 - www.portalangop.co.ao/motix/en_us/noticias/politica/ 2011/1/9/India-opens-new...

52 India-Angola Relations...

53 Targeting Africa Brazil launches business centre in Angola. December 1, 2010 - http://brazilglobal.net/2010/12/01/targeting-africa-brazil-launces-business-ctntre-in-angola

54 Brazil reaffirms its political and trade influence in Angola and Mozambique // Merco Press. October 21, 2011.

55 Bridging the Atlantic. Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa. South-South Partnering for Growth. Brazilian Foreign Direct Investment and Trade with AFRICA. Chapter 5. Wash. World Bank. 2012, p. 93.

Lewis D. 56 In Africa Brazil takes a different track. Brazil in Africa. Special Report. February 21, 2011.

57 Bridging the Atlantic. Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa.., p. 83.

58 Ibid. P. 95.

59 Targeting Africa Brazil launches business centre...

60 Bridging the Atlantic. Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa.., p. 93.


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T. L. DEITCH, V. A. USOV, RISING POWERS ON THE AFRICAN CONTINENT: THE CASE OF ANGOLA // London: British Digital Library (ELIBRARY.ORG.UK). Updated: 21.01.2024. URL: https://elibrary.org.uk/m/articles/view/RISING-POWERS-ON-THE-AFRICAN-CONTINENT-THE-CASE-OF-ANGOLA (date of access: 21.04.2024).

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