Libmonster ID: UK-1252
Author(s) of the publication: Yu. I. GUTIN

THERE ARE ONLY 15 THOUSAND OF THEM, BUT THEY MAKE A WORTHY CONTRIBUTION TO THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RENEWED CHINA

Yu. I. GUTIN

Postgraduate student of ISAA MSU

KeywordsChinaRussian diasporaelosyzu

Over the past decade, dozens of scientific and journalistic works have been published on the Russian emigration and its descendants living in different countries of the world today. Information about Russian diasporas in Western Europe and the United States often appears in the Russian media. However, there are practically no publications about such an interesting and unique phenomenon as the modern Russian diaspora in China.

In China, Russian citizens of the country are given much more attention both in scientific publications and in the media. Russians in China are officially recognized as one of the 55 national minorities, and new materials devoted to their life, customs, religion, socio-political and cultural activities often appear in the press, as well as on radio and television in this country.

At the same time, it should be borne in mind that Russians are one of the smallest among the peoples recognized by the official authorities of the PRC. According to the penultimate to date fifth national population census (2000; the results of the last - the 6th-conducted in November 2010, have not yet been published), the number of Russians in China is only 15609 people, of which about 8935 live in Xinjiang and 5020 in Inner Mongolia 1. According to the classification of Chinese ethnographers, local Russians belong to ethnic groups of mixed origin (Hunxue mingzu), since most of them have both Russian and Chinese roots.

Representatives of the Russian national minority can be found in a wide variety of areas of social, political, cultural and sports life in China-from the National People's Congress to cinema and equestrian sports.

Who are the Russians represented in these areas? What do they see as their own goals and objectives? And how does their Russian origin affect their social and professional activities, as well as their self - awareness-in other words, who, ultimately, do they recognize themselves as? Let's try to answer these questions.

NIKOLAI ZIMENKO IS REMEMBERED IN CHINA

Russians have long been represented in China's formally highest authority, the National People's Congress (NPC), and in the main consultative body, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

The very first known representative of the Russians in the NPC was Nikolai Vasilyevich Zimenko. His name appears among the delegates of the Committee on Ethnic Affairs of the National People's Congress of the 3rd convocation (1965-1975), whose composition was approved in January 1965.

Little is known about N. V. Zimenko himself. He was born in 1901 in Karakol on the territory of the modern Republic of Kyrgyzstan. In 1920, he joined the Soviet Red Army. In 1933, he settled in Zhaoxu County of Xinjiang (probably fled to China in the conditions of famine that followed collectivization). In 1944, he received Chinese citizenship. In the same year, he took part in the so-called Revolution of Three Districts 2, for which he was awarded the title of hero. At various times, he held the positions of Deputy Chairman of the Head of the Political Advisory Council (PCC) of Zhaoxu County and deputy of the PCC of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. He died in 1984.3

It should be noted that in the 1950s, Zimenko was a relatively typical figure in Xinjiang among a fairly wide circle of Chinese political activists who came from the USSR. At this time, local residents who had Soviet passports held fairly strong positions in the Xinjiang authorities. Thus, according to Chinese researchers, in the early 1950s, the number of people with Soviet citizenship in the government of Xinjiang itself and among the senior cadres in the bodies of this government reached

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25-26 people. In Hope (Or) their positions were even stronger 4. However, the situation changed in the early 1960s. By 1963, most of the Soviet citizens had left China, and Soviet-Chinese relations were gradually deteriorating.

During the years of the" cultural revolution", Russians in China disappear from the political scene for a while. At that time, the very fact of Russian origin was sufficient to get into the lists of "agents of Soviet revisionists". So it was in the village of Pogranichnaya ("Xiaodingzi") in the prov. Heilongjiang, where a significant part of the population is made up of Russians and descendants from mixed marriages of Russians with Chinese. During the Cultural Revolution, many residents were denounced as" revisionist agents "during the purges, and the village itself was often popularly referred to as a" spy village ".5

This also affected the representation of Russians in government bodies - they disappeared from the lists of delegates to the Xinjiang Political Consultative Conference. However, in the composition of the next, fourth convocation of the NPC (1975-1978), one can see a delegate from among the Xinjiang elosyzu - Nadezhda Karpova (kit. Kaerbova Nazia)6. She also represented Russians in the next fifth convocation of the National People's Congress (1978-1983) .7

The year of birth of the second Russian delegate to the National People's Congress is unknown, and his place of birth is Gongliu County, Yingheershan District, Xinjiang. According to the biography published on the Internet, Nadezhda Karpova was born in a poor family and worked for a landowner from the age of 12. Then her parents fell ill, the family had nothing to live on, and she and her two younger sisters were forced to beg. However, after Liberation, as the CCP's rise to power and the founding of the PRC are called in modern China, Nadezhda's life changed. In 1951, after becoming one of the first "progressive elements of national minorities", N. Karpova joined the Communist Party of China. In 1952, she was sent to study at the Urumqi Specialized Medical School, where she successfully graduated. In the Yili province of Xinjiang, relying on her extensive clinical experience, she cured many people and saved dozens of lives. N. Karpova was repeatedly awarded the title of "advanced worker" (Xianjin gongzho) and " good personnel worker "(hao ganbu). In 1985. she passed away on 8.

Among the delegates of the 6th convocation of the National People's Congress (1983-1988) was an ethnically Russian kindergarten teacher Vera (kit. Vail). In the NPC of the next, seventh convocation (1988-1993), elosyzu was already represented by two delegates-Nina Sheveleva (kit. Nina Shivaluva (possibly a misspelled surname) and Galina (?) Ivanovna Karpova (kit. Kalabova Ivannofuna Kaliya). As a member of the NPC of the 8th convocation (1993-1998), the Russians were again represented by G. I. Karpova.9 It is known that she was born in December 1950 in Chuguchak and worked as a teacher in the 3rd city primary school 10. Among the deputies of the ninth convocation of the National People's Congress (1998 - 2002), the Russian ethnic minority was represented by Lydia Vashchenko (Washenga Liza Lida, kit. Name Zhang Liqin, b. in August 1958), a primary school teacher in Chuguchak. After completing the work of the NPC of the 9th convocation, Vashchenko continued to teach and engage in public activities.

At the sessions of the NPC of the 10th (2003-2007) and current (11) convocations, the Russian ethnic minority is represented by R. A. Alexandrova (born in March 1957), a judge of the Economic Affairs Division of the Chuguchak District People's Court of the middle level. R. A. Alexandrova's maternal grandfather came from the prov. Hebei, on his father's side - from the province of Shandong, both by nationality Han. My paternal and maternal grandparents are Russian.

The beginning of her career can be considered 1981, when she came to work in the Chuguchak district Court. Starting with the duties of a typist and secretary, R. A. Alexandrova rose to the position of judge. In 1998, she received a recommendation from the National Women's Federation and the Committee on Ethnic Affairs and the title of "model judge" 11.

As a member of the National People's Congress, R. A. Alexandrova often makes inspection trips to various courts. In specialized publications devoted to judicial and legal issues, you can read her statements concerning various aspects of the activities of the courts of the PRC. In her opinion, many courts in China do not have enough judges with an excess of administrative staff. R. A. Alexandrova also considers it necessary to introduce a system of courts with the participation of people's assessors in China.12

NPC deputy R. A. Alexandrova is a member of the Communist Party of China. During the first session of the eleventh convocation of the NPC in March 2008. she introduced the draft law "On amendments to the provision of criminal legislation on crimes related to giving bribes", which, in addition to her, was supported by 37 other delegates.13 It also seeks to support Russians living in Xinjiang. In particular, it seeks to open a Russian-language TV channel and radio station broadcasting in Russian. However, this initiative has not yet been implemented. According to the official lists of delegates, Nikolai Vasilyevich Zimenko became the first representative of elosyzu not only in the NPC, but also in the CPPCC. However, his work in the NPCC dates back to a much later period - Zimenko was elected a delegate to the 5th convocation of the NPCC in 1978. The next representative of the Russians in the NPKSK was his son, veterinarian Vladimir Nikolaevich Zimenko, who was a delegate of the 6th (1983-1988) and 7th (1988-1993) convocations 14.

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N. V. Zimenko was also a member of the All-China Youth Association, where he was elected around 1984.

PATRIARCH OF CHINESE RUSSIAN STUDIES

Elizaveta Pavlovna Kishkina (Li Sha, possibly Lisa) occupies a special place among the Russians who were members of the NPC at various times. She was born in 1914 in the Saratov province. The uncle of the future "patriarch of Chinese Russian studies", as journalists would later call her, was one of the leaders of the Cadet Party and a member of the provisional government, Nikolai Mikhailovich Kishkin15.

After graduating from the Fabzavuch in 1931, E. P. Kishkina voluntarily went to work in the Soviet Far East, where she got into the Far Eastern regional publishing House, which published political literature in Russian. At that time, Khabarovsk and Vladivostok were actively training personnel for the Chinese Communist Party, and working among the Chinese diaspora. It was there that E. P. Kishkina first encountered the Chinese and became interested in China.

A little later, in Moscow, already working as a translator for the Comintern, E. P. Kishkina meets the Chinese communist Li Lisan, a prominent figure in the Chinese trade union movement and former general secretary of the party, who fell into disgrace because of his, as was commonly said, "leftist" views. The future Li Sha, despite this, apparently liked the young and energetic Li Lisan, and in 1936 they were married.

In 1946, a new Chinese period began in the biography of E. P. Kishkina. The international family moved to China, where Li Lisan became the first vice-chairman of the All - China Federation of Trade Unions, and E. P. Kishkina became engaged in what later became her life's work-teaching Russian. Since 1949, she has been working at the Beijing Institute of Foreign Languages.

E. P. Kishkina received Chinese citizenship and her new name - Li Sha - only in 1964, having decided to permanently link herself with the PRC. However, it soon fell on hard times, as did all the Elozu in China, during the decade of the so-called "cultural revolution". However, for her, the trials of that time were connected not so much with her Russian origin, but with the disgraced position of her husband, who was reminded by the Red Guards of his "leftist" past and, as a result of massive harassment, was driven to suicide. Li Lisan's widow was imprisoned in solitary confinement for 8 years in 1967. Later, she was exiled to the village.

Only in 1979, Li Sha was rehabilitated and received the title of Professor of Philology, taught Russian at the Beijing Institute of Foreign Languages. Together with the restoration of her rights and the resumption of work in her specialty, Li Sha also engaged in public activities as a deputy of the CPPCC of the 6th-9th convocations (1983-2003). To date, this is the longest time spent as a deputy from Elozu in the authorities of the People's Republic of China.

The Chinese political elite considers E. P. Kishkina not so much as a representative of the Russian national minority, but as a public figure. In 2008, the book "Love for Life - the Interethnic marriage of Li Sha and Li Lisan" was published in China, which tells about the life of E. P. Kishkina through the prism of her relationship with Li Lisan. In 2005, on the day of her 90th birthday, E. P. Kishkina was congratulated by the Russian Ambassador to China I. A. Rogachev.

Currently, elosyzu has two representatives in the main political advisory body - N. I. Lunev, a resident of Kulji (Yining), and Jin Li, a native of Qingdao. The life and social activities of each of these deputies are interesting in their own way.

KULDZHINSKAYA RUSSIAN SCHOOL

Nikolai Ivanovich Lunev was born in China, but both of his parents are Russian. In the 1930s, the Lunev family fled to Xinjiang, China, as collectivization was gaining momentum in the USSR. There she joined the already quite large and influential Russian diaspora. By main occupation, N. I. Lunev is the director of the only Russian school in modern China, located in Kulja. He graduated from it himself and now not only heads the school, but also teaches Russian in it. According to N. I. Lunev, until the 1960s there were 4 Russian schools in Kulja, but during the "Cultural revolution" all of them were closed. National Russian education in Kulja received a new breath with the beginning of the "reform and openness" policy in China.

Kuldzha Russian School was founded in 1985 on the basis of the Russian class of the 6th secondary school of Kuldzha, which was opened in 1981. Currently, 106 children are enrolled in the school, of which only 10 belong to the eloqizu. From 1985 to 1996, teaching was conducted in Chinese and Russian, with Russian being the main language. However, in 1996, it was decided to make Chinese the main language in order to facilitate the admission of graduates to Chinese educational institutions. Currently, only the Russian language itself is taught in Russian (6-7 hours a week), which allows the educational institution to have the status of a "Russian school".

In addition to the several hours of Russian language provided for in the curriculum, the school also has additional Russian language and literature clubs. Extracurricular activities are held, where students get acquainted with Russian songs, dances and cuisine. In the 1980s, contacts with the USSR were established here, from where the school was supplied with-

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textbooks and literature were published. Then, for a long time, there were no contacts with Russia, which Lunev attributed to the small number of students.

Until recently, N. I. Lunev alone represented the entire Russian population of the PRC in the NPC. According to him, he takes the most active part in discussing ways of economic development and improving the standard of living of the population of Northwestern China, which is noticeably lagging behind the economically developed south and southeast of the country. By participating in the CPPCC meetings, Lunev brings suggestions from the Russian community of Xinjiang to the country's top leadership.

Before becoming a member of the National Political Consultative Council, N. I. Lunev participated in meetings of the Xinjiang Political Consultative Council. Being a representative of the Russian national minority, he competed with other Russians in the election, and not with representatives of other nationalities.

In Kulja, it is planned to create a "street of Russian culture", where, according to the plan of its creators, houses in the Russian style, restaurants of Russian cuisine, exhibition centers, etc. will be built. According to N. I. Lunev, "... the creation of a street of Russian culture was discussed with partners in Novosibirsk, and the vice-mayor of the city agreed to send architects to implement this idea " 16. Apparently, the appearance of such a street is only a matter of time.

Another representative of Russians in the NPC is Jin Li, Professor of American Studies and Deputy rector of Beijing University of Foreign Languages. Her academic specialty is American literature. Russian by nationality, Jin Li was born in 1954 in Qingdao. She is a member of the Jiusan Society, which is one of the eight so-called "naz" companies legally operating in the territory of the People's Republic of China. democratic parties, and the CPPCC represents this particular organization.

Jin Li's" work biography " began in 1972. From 1972 to 1978, she taught at the Yanzhou Natural Resources Management High School in Shandong Province. From 1974 to 1975, she completed an internship at the Qufu Pedagogical Institute. In 1978-1982. She studied at the Faculty of Foreign Languages of Shandong University, majoring in English and English-language Literature, and received a bachelor's degree. She taught English at the Beijing Medical University and the Beijing Institute of Foreign Languages. Since 1994, he has been working as an associate professor and professor at Beijing University of Foreign Languages. From 2000 to 2001 , he was a visiting researcher at Yale University.17

IN LOCAL AUTHORITIES

In addition to the NPC and CPPCC, representatives of the Elozu meet in local people's representative assemblies and advisory councils. For example, in the Urumqi City Department of the Xinjiang SNP, Russians are represented by Chang Feng, a pediatrician, chief physician of the Pediatrics department of the Urumqi Children's Hospital. After graduating from the Faculty of Clinical Medicine of Nanjing Medical Institute in 1978, she started working in Urumqi, where she still works today.

Russians are also represented in the Chuguchak district Branch of the SNP, which is not surprising, since this area is currently the place of the greatest concentration of Russians in Xinjiang. Here elosyzu is represented by Nadezhda Ivanova (Ivannova Najia), a teacher of the 2nd kindergarten in Chuguchak 19.

Russians, as one of the indigenous nationalities of Xinjiang, are also represented in the local NPC. So, in the educational section of the NCPS, XUAR Russians are represented by Hu Xiaolin, a senior teacher at the Urumqi secondary school on August 1. And a member of the Standing Committee of the XUAR NPC is Bolia, Vice-chairman of the XUAR Artists ' Association, artist of the Xinjiang Institute of Painting 20. His life and work will be described below.

Another prominent representative of Russians in local government is Liu Jinban, a deputy of the Tianyin NPC. He was born in 1935 in Khabarovsk, but at the age of three he moved with his parents to Urumqi. Currently, Liu Jinbang is the head of the Religious Affairs Management Committee of the Russian Orthodox Church in Urumqi 21.

Liu Jinbang's statements about China's elozu are of particular interest. To some extent, they provide an answer to the question: does it make sense to talk about the Russians of China as a truly original and in some sense unique phenomenon? And what is characteristic of the ethnic identity of the Chinese elozu? Here is what he says about his attitude to the historical homeland and to China, which became a second homeland for him: "At the end of the XVIII century, the Russian people, who were under tsarist rule, lived in extremely difficult conditions. In order to survive, some Russians, overcoming the hardships of the road, came to Chinese Xinjiang. Those Russians were our ancestors. The then Chinese government accepted them and gave them land for arable land. Since then, those Russians left their native lands and came to China, where their new life began. It was China that gave us a new life, it was China that saved us. Now there are always people who ask me: would you like to return to your homeland in Russia? And I tell them that I never wanted to go back. Because it was China that brought us up, China gave us life, and we live so happily here , so why should we want to go back? " 22

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Of course, we must not forget that this is the statement of an official with certain powers, whose words always more or less reflect the point of view of the Chinese ruling elite. Still, the above passage gives some insight into the self-consciousness of the Chinese elosizu.

A number of points are noteworthy. First, Liu Jinbang himself found himself in China in the 1930s, and his parents no longer fled there "from the hardships of tsarist power." Nevertheless, the Xinjiang elosyzu of China, as can be seen in this example, count their own history from the time of the first Russian settlements in Xinjiang in the XVIII century, and therefore do not divide each other into descendants of different waves of emigration.

Secondly, the current elosyzu prefer not to recall the monstrous trials that befell them during the "cultural revolution", when Russian origin could become a reason for persecution by the authorities. For today's Elozu, China is the country that allowed them and their ancestors to survive, even if this statement sometimes runs counter to historical facts.

And, thirdly, despite their complete loyalty to the Chinese authorities and unwillingness to return to their historical homeland, the Elosizu, although to varying degrees, are still quite clearly aware of their national roots and, most importantly, are not going to give them up. This directly follows from the words of another prominent representative of the Russians, N. I. Lunev: "The goal of the school (Russian school Kulji. - editor's note) - to preserve, first of all, for elosyzu-the national language and national culture... " 23

From this we can conclude that it is these three circumstances that form the community of Russians in the PRC.

Despite the fact that the Elozu of China are extremely heterogeneous and, in fact, represent an ethnic conglomerate, which consists of people and groups of people with different degrees of assimilation and different levels of proficiency in the Russian language and national culture, nevertheless, there are objective reasons to speak of them as a separate ethnic unit.

Most of the mentioned Eloxuzu politicians are originally from Xinjiang. This is not surprising: Xinjiang is not only the first region in the People's Republic of China in terms of the number of Russians, but it has long remained the only place in the country where the Elozu had an officially recognized status. Over time, the presence of such was recognized in Inner Mongolia, where many descendants of immigrants from Russia also live.

Back in 1994, a Russian national parish was created in the Enhe locality of the Hulong Buir Urban district, which initially bore the same name-Enhe. In 2001, after the merger of Enhe Parish with Shiwei Township, the Russian National Municipality of Shiwei 24 was established in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In addition to his administrative activities, Li Zheng also takes part in the social life of Inner Mongolian Russians.

Thus, the representation of Russians in the political life of the PRC went through three stages. At the first stage, the eloqizu were represented by those who took part in the establishment of a new political regime in Xinjiang. Then, in the post-reform period, they were mainly civil servants associated with the field of education, health or culture. Finally, recently, leaders of autonomous entities have been appearing among the political representatives of Elosyzu.

It should be noted that not only representatives of Russians in the authorities of the People's Republic of China, but also elozu from among cultural and sports figures are aware of their ethnic origin and are proud of it.

THEY LOVE RUSSIAN SONGS IN CHINA

Many Chinese people, especially the older generation, have a great love for traditional Russian art culture. Among the various characteristics given to Russians in modern Chinese journalism, one of the most popular is "they know how to sing and dance", and when describing traditional Russian holidays, Chinese authors often draw readers ' attention to such indispensable attributes of the elosyzu feast as the bayan and balalaika.

The theme of music and songs arises even in relation to representatives of Russians in the authorities of the PRC. So, there are references to the fact that the NPC deputy Alexandrova and the NPC deputy Lunev sometimes gather to perform a duet of Russian songs, and the NPC deputy of Xinjiang Liu Jinbang is also not indifferent to the music of his historical homeland.

It is logical to assume that Russians should certainly be represented among professional musicians of modern China. And it really is. Today, the most prominent representative of elozu among Chinese musicians is the composer-songwriter from Xinjiang Zhang Jinfu, whose Russian name is Anatoly.

Zhang Jinfu was born in Shihezi Township, Xinjiang, in 1964. In 1999, under the impression of the bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade by NATO troops, Zhang Jinfu wrote the song "This is our people" and took part in one of the amateur song contests. The essay won second place and was broadcast by many TV and radio stations. His songs "Ashili, My Beloved Homeland", "Ashili Girl", "Changji Noodles" and "Loulan Girl" are very popular.

Zhang Jinfu made a great contribution to the holding of the years of Russia and China in 2006-2007. He became the mastermind behind the filming of the film

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"Eternal Memories", dedicated to the history of elozu in China. With his work, Anatoly tries to emphasize the connection with his Russian ancestors and convey the originality of the culture of Chinese elosyzu by artistic means.

ARTISTS AND ATHLETES WITH RUSSIAN ROOTS

Speaking about the representatives of Russians in the culture of modern China, it is impossible not to mention the name of the famous artist and film actor Ge Sha. He was born in 1931 in Heihe, Heilongjiang province. Like many descendants of mixed Russian-Chinese marriages, Ge Sha's mother was Russian, and her father was Chinese. It is no coincidence that his atypical Chinese name sounds almost like a Russian Gosha - that's what his mother called him, and his father gave the Russian name a Chinese touch. Only his mother worked in the family - she was a laundress, but Ge Sha helped her from a very young age: at various times he worked as a garbage collector, waiter, blacksmith and loader. During the difficult war years, Ge Sha developed an interest in painting. In 1938, the family moved to Xinjing. Changchun). There, Ge Sha made new friends who, like him, were interested in painting. They were the ones who advised Ge Sha to go to Beijing to study painting. And in 1948, he went on foot to Beijing. On the way, he was attacked three times by bandits, but still managed to reach the capital. There, at the College of Art, he was allowed to attend classes as a free listener. It was only after the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 that Ge Sha became a student at the Central Art Institute. In 1951, he went to the northwest of China, where he worked as a correspondent for Xi'an Huabao. In the 1970s. Ge Sha, like many artists during the Cultural Revolution, was sent to the countryside "to be re-educated by poor peasants and lower middle peasants."

Ge Sha has shown himself to be a multi-faceted artist. Among his works, there are both oil paintings and works in the national style of Guohua. Ge Sha regularly starred in films - he has more than 30 acting works to his credit. Because of his atypical Chinese appearance, his characters are usually foreigners. So, in the historical series of Chinese television, Ge Sha often played employees of the Comintern.

In addition to Ge Sha, Bolia, a member of the Xinjiang NPC, also mentioned above, represents Russian artists in China. He was born in December 1964 in Kulja, and graduated from the Art Institute of Xinjiang Normal University in 1988. He also holds the position of Deputy Chairman of the XUAR Artists ' Association. His works were repeatedly awarded prizes at exhibitions. So, in 1992, the painting "Gold and Silver" was selected for demonstration at the "Exhibition of Chinese Oil Painting". Two years later, the painting "Season of Flowers" was shown at the "Exhibition of Literature and Fine Arts of National Minorities of China".

Among the cultural and artistic figures of the People's Republic of China, there are other representatives of elozu from various regions of the country. These are, for example, a writer living in Qinghai Province, a member of the Chinese Writers ' Association Nikolai (Yu Xihe), a writer Zhang Yan from ARVM, an artist from Xinjiang Xu Weibing.

As already mentioned, representatives of elosyzu have long been taking the initiative to create an official cultural organization for the Russian ethnic minority. And this initiative eventually turned out to be successful - in 2005, the "Association of Russian Culture" (Elosyzu wenhua sehui)was founded in Chuguchak25. Judging by the publications in the press, the main tasks of the association are the preservation and popularization of traditional Russian culture, as well as the organization and holding of Russian holidays.

Two years later, the Russian Study Society was founded in Inner Mongolia, China's second - largest Eloqizu region. The society has its own official website 26, which publishes information about its current activities, as well as scientific and popular science articles on the eloqizu of China.

In sports, the representative of elosyzu, Liu Lin, is widely known. She is the only female member of the Chinese national equestrian team.

Liu Lina was born in Urumqi in 1979. Both of her parents are Elosizu by nationality; her mother taught art classes in high school. She achieved her greatest success in 1997, when she won first place in the dressage competition at the Eighth All-China Sports Games. As a member of the Chinese national team, Liu Lina took part in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where, however, she took only 41st place out of a possible 47.

* * *

The participation of Russian representatives in various spheres of social and political life, art, and sports in the People's Republic of China suggests that modern Elosyzu can be described as a unique ethnic phenomenon in modern China.

Initially, most expats saw China as a place where they could ride out difficult times and return to Russia when life there returned to normal, or as a kind of transit point from which they would later set off again to other countries and other continents. However, those of them who consciously or due to some circumstances did not want or were unable to leave China after 1949, later became one of the officially recognized 56 peoples of China - elozu.

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Having gone through the ordeal of the "cultural revolution", they were able to survive as a special ethnic group. And after the reforms of the 1980s, the Elozu were able to successfully integrate into the rapidly developing Chinese society, becoming an integral part of it - at first very divided, but over time increasingly aware of the commonality of their origin and culture.

The second, third, and fourth generations of Elozu no longer feel nostalgic for their historical homeland: most of them are familiar with it only through the stories of their elders and the Internet.

Over time, the Russians of China have managed to increase their representation in the country's socio-political and cultural life, declaring themselves as loudly as the national minority, whose number is only about 15 thousand in the almost one and a half billion human sea of modern China, can declare itself.


1 Website of the Statistical Office of the People's Republic of China. 2000 nian renkou pucha (Fifth National Census of 2000) - http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/renkoupucha/2000pucha/pucha.htm

2 In September 1944, large - scale armed uprisings broke out in three districts of Xinjiang - Ili, Chuguchak, and Altai-and completely engulfed the above-mentioned regions. The Xinjiang National Army was formed. These events went down in history as the "Three Districts Revolution".

3 Nikela Waxiliyeweiqi Zimianke de xiangxi ziliao (Detailed information about Nikolai Vasilyevich Zimenko) - http://www.uname.cn/celeb/celeb_89800.html

Li Danhui. 4 Xinjiang Sulian qiaomin wenti de lishi kaocha (1945-1965) (Historical study of the problem of Soviet emigrants in Xinjiang (1945-1965)) / / Lishi yanjiu, 2003, N 3, p.90.

Liao Bangkun. 5 "Xiaodingzi" Zhongguo weiyide eluosizu cunzhuang ("Xiaodingzi": the only Russian national village in China) - http://www.heihechina.com/news/2005/2005 - 5/2005 - 5-13 - 7.htm

6 Junzheng shequ, 2009. Di si jie quanguo renmin daibiao dahui daibiao mingdan (List of deputies of the fourth convocation of the National People's Congress) - http://ourzg.com/bbs/read.phpVtid-91015-fpage-3-page-2.html

7 Lijie quanguo renda shaoshuminzu renshu (Representatives of national minorities in the National People's Congress of different convocations) - http://gongjushu.cnki.net/CRFDHTML/r200606009/r200606009.la65bd5.html

8 Baidu Encyclopedia. Eluosizu (Russian) - http://baike.baidu.com/view/4245.htm

9 Lijie quanguo renda shaoshuminzu renshu (Representatives of national minorities of different convocations of the National People's Congress) - http://gongjushu.cnki.net/CRFDHTML/r200606009/r200606009.1a65bd5.html

10 Minzu: Eluosizu renwujianli (Nationality: Russian-short biography of cadres) - http://www.renwuonline.com/PeopleSearch.aspx?sKey=PeopleNational:%B6%ED%C2%DE %CB%B9%D7%E5

11 Layisa Aliekesangdeluona daibiao: "Sifa gaige shi wo ganshoudao yali" (MP Raisa Alexandrovna: "Legal reforms make me feel pressured") - http://www.chinacourt.org/html/article/200303/09/41906.shtml

Xu Guangmin. 12 Layisa Aliekesangdeluona daibiao jianyi mingque fayuan bianzhiyuan e he fayuan linxuan chengxu (NPC member Raisa Alexandrovna suggests streamlining the number of full-time employees and the procedure for selecting judges) - http://www.chinacourt.org/public/detail.php?id-237768&k_title

13 NPC website. Xinjiang daibiaotuan xiang dahui tijiao liang jian yian (Xinjiang delegation passed two bills to the Assembly), 2008 - http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/dbgz/dbhd/2008 - 03/13/content_1416047.htm

14 It can be assumed that V. N. Zimenko was the son of the elder Zimenko, but there is no evidence of this in the sources found.

Kirillov A. 15 Patriarch of Chinese Russian Studies - http://www.russedina.ru/?id-2676

Chaplygina M. 16Shchepin K. "The most Russian city of the PRC" can become a twin city with Novosibirsk / / RIAN, 10.03.2009.

17 Jin Li (Цзинь Ли) - http://www.93.gov.cn/hero/syjzxwy/51019236766405716946.shtml

18 Chang Feng daifu jianjie (Characteristics of Dr. Chang Feng) / / Hao daifu zaixian website, 2010 - http://www.haodf.com/doctor/DE4r0BCkuHzduGnyeZblqIYC2U8VE.htm

19 Xinjiang Weiwuer zizhiqu di shii jieerenmin daibiao dahui daibiao mingdan (List of delegates to the 11th convocation of the People's Congress of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) http://news.qq.eom/a/20080106/002465.htm

20 Boliya - http://blog.sina.com.en/s/blog_4ba78492010095co.html

21 Zhufu Beijing Eluosizu houxuanren Tianshanqu zhengxie weiyuan Liu Jinbang (Wishing good luck to Beijing: Russian candidate, Tien Shan PCC member Liu Jinbang) - http://2008.sina.com.cn/hd/other/2007 - 12-06/141036061. shtml

22 Zhufu Beijing Eluosizu houxuanren Tianshanqu zhengxie weiyuan Liu Jinbang...

23 56 ge minzu zhufu Beijing zhi Eluosizu (56 peoples wish good luck to Beijing: Russian) - http://www.btv.org/btvweb/07btv6/2007-12/10/content_250437.htm

24 Shiwei Eluosi minzu xiang (Russian National Municipality of Shiwei) - http://www.nmg.gov.cn/gr/ArticleContent.aspx?id-25437&ClassId=240

25 Tacheng nianjian, 2005 (Chuguchak Yearbook, 2005) - Xinjiang dianzi yinxiang chubanshe, 2005, p. 153.

26 www.nelsy.org

 


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