INDIA: CASTES AND INTER-CASTE RELATIONSHIPS LIVE AND CHANGE
More than 80% of the population of India is made up of Hindus, each of whom was born in the corresponding Hindu caste, which is part of the traditional Varna system. It consists of four varnas( social groups), the first three - brahmans, kshatriyas and vaisyas - are "twice-born". Boys from these varnas were allowed to learn sacred knowledge in Sanskrit, which gives a second birth. The fourth varna is that of the sudras, who are bound to serve the " twice-born." There were untouchables outside the Varna system. The representatives of all four varnas were considered "pure", the representatives of the untouchables were considered "unclean", ritually "defiling" all other Hindus, especially Brahmins and kshatriyas. This four-member organization of Indian society, which existed almost from the first millennium BC until the IV-V centuries AD, was purely hierarchical, which was expressed in the inequality of first Varnas, and later castes, most of which trace their origin to one of the Varnas. The emergence of castes dates back to the end of the ancient period. The formation of the modern caste system was completed in the VII-X centuries. Each of the castes could have dozens of podcasts that have maintained their identity for centuries. This social system has undergone significant changes over time, but not only has it not disappeared, but it still continues to live and play an important role in the socio-economic and political life of modern India. The 20th century was held in India under the banner of the struggle for socio-economic equality of the Hindu middle and lower castes. One of the results of the functioning of the caste hierarchy over the centuries was the creation of a pervasive social system that allowed the upper castes, especially the Brahmins, to exploit the middle and lower castes. The caste controlled all aspects of human life. At the same time, the brahmans occupied the most prestigious positions in society. Adopted in 1833 by the colonial Administration ... Read more
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05.06.2024 (15 days ago)
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