Libmonster ID: UK-1456

E. N. KORENDYASOV

Candidate of Economic Sciences

A. Y. URNOV

Doctor of Historical Sciences

V. G. SHUBIN

Doctor of Historical Sciences

Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: 50 years of the OAUAURussia-AfricaBRICS

In December 2010, the world celebrated the 50th anniversary of the "Year of Africa", and on May 25, 2013, another" golden jubilee " was celebrated - the 50th anniversary of the formation of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and its successor, the African Union (AU). The event that took place in Addis Ababa in 1963 has gone down in history as " Africa Day "and undoubtedly deserves to be called"historic".

The message of congratulations sent by Russian President Vladimir Putin to the heads of State and Government of African countries on the occasion of this anniversary reads:: "The creation of this unique structure half a century ago was an important milestone on the way of the peoples of Africa to ensure peace, security, stability, mutual understanding and good neighborliness on the continent. The African Union is an effective mechanism for multilateral political, economic and humanitarian cooperation and coordination of the actions of its participants on the world stage. " 1

FROM THE OAU TO THE AU

The OAU has become an all-encompassing organization in the full sense of the word. All the States of the continent that gained independence after the formation of the OAU joined it. Is this not an eloquent testimony to the desire for unity, the strength of pan-Africanist ideas?

At that time, the process of decolonization was still far from complete, and it was only natural that the elimination of all forms of colonialism and racism should have been declared the most important task of the OAU.2 But not the only one.

Among the tasks of the OAU is to protect and strengthen the "hard-won" independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of African countries, and already in the future.

page 6

In the preamble to the Charter, this was directly linked to the struggle against neo-colonialism in all its forms. 3

Let's pay tribute to the African leaders. Despite all the sometimes profound differences in their worldview and policies, they managed to agree that the common enemy of Africa is neocolonialism.

According to the Charter, it can be defeated on the path of creation - "developing the natural and human resources of the continent" in the interests of "total progress of its peoples in all spheres of human activity" 4.

Action must be taken to strengthen the unity and solidarity of African States, coordinating and enhancing their cooperation in a wide range of areas, from politics and economics to defence and security.5

The OAU has existed for almost 40 years. In July 2002, it was replaced by the African Union.

In the late 1990s and early ' noughties, much was said and written about the weaknesses and shortcomings of the OAU, that it had exhausted its potential. The need for a new organization is really ripe. The initiative to create it came from the then leader of Libya, Muammar Gaddafi. Africa's leaders have come to the conclusion that the continent needs a stronger and more effective mechanism, greater cohesion and coordination to meet the challenges they face. At the same time, the AU was created as a more democratic structure, with a functioning Pan-African Parliament and an Economic, Social and Cultural Council, in which both civil society and the African diaspora are represented.

The main thing is the problem of development, especially against the background of the economic difficulties that Africa faced at the end of the XX century. It is no coincidence that the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) was born together with the AU. They are a kind of "twins and brothers". The AU, of course, is the older brother, although it was created after the adoption of this program.

On the economic difficulties and ills of Africa. Here is one instructive example.

In 1988. Julius Nyerere (then no longer President of Tanzania) was received at the World Bank and asked the question: "Why did you fail?"

Here is what the wise Mwalimu ("teacher", as he was called in Tanzania, and not only) answered. Tanzania inherited from the British Empire an 85% illiteracy rate, two engineers and 15 doctors. "When I left my post, we had a 9% illiteracy rate, thousands of engineers and doctors. Today we have one-third fewer school children, and our public health and social services systems are in ruins." "For the past 30 years, Tanzania has done everything that the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have asked it to do. So I ask, " Why did you fail?"6 This is Nyerere's assessment of the WB and IMF structural reforms in Africa.

While noting the shortcomings of the OAU, we recognize that, overall, its role has been very positive and constructive, and its contribution to the history of Africa is highly commendable. Suffice it to recall how much the OAU and its Liberation Committee have done to eliminate colonialism and racism.

In July 2013, counting from the first AU summit in Durban, the Union turned 11 years old. It proved its viability, gave a new quality to African unity, and stimulated integration processes. Of course, Afrosoz has its own weaknesses and shortcomings. It is obvious, however,that those skeptics who, when forming the AU, claimed that this was "a new bottle for old wine"were deeply mistaken. 7

AFRICA IS DIFFERENT TODAY

On May 25 and 26, 2013, the jubilee and working assemblies of the African Union were held in Addis Ababa. The general theme of the celebration was "Pan-Africanism and the African Renaissance".

page 7

The jubilee summit consisted of two sessions. The first was held at the AU Conference Center, which was built as a gift by China. Opening remarks by Hailemariam Desalegn, President of the AU and Prime Minister of Ethiopia, and Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, who recently became Chair of the AU Commission on Various Aspects of the main theme of the celebration, were followed by speeches by D. Kaberuka, President of the African Development Bank (AfDB) (Rwanda), Amina Mama, gender specialist (Nigeria), former Prime Minister of the African Republic of Jamaica's P. J. Patterson and a representative of the Zimbabwe All-Africa Youth Organization.

Then a discussion was held with the participation of the heads of State and Government. An interesting detail: with the arrival of the new head of the AU Commission, discipline at meetings increased dramatically - after the three minutes set for each speech, the microphone was automatically turned off.

The second session was of a different nature. In the "Millennium Hall" gathered not only official participants, but also thousands of residents of the capital of Ethiopia. Speeches by African leaders (mostly on behalf of regional organizations) were interspersed with concert numbers and a screening of a film about the history of the OAU-AU. Perhaps it is worth highlighting the speech of Ugandan President Ioweri Museveni, who, by the way, was the only one who noted the role of the socialist countries (the USSR, China and Cuba) in achieving African independence.

The main impression is that afropessimism has been discarded, and the spirit of optimism is triumphant. Africa looks to the future with confidence. Here is an excerpt from the official press release of the summit: "The 50th anniversary falls at a golden time for Africa. A continent that was considered hopeless just 10 years ago is undoubtedly on the rise today."8. The summit also provided concrete figures confirming these successes: Africa has an average GDP growth rate of -5%, and of the 8 fastest-growing economies, 6 are in Africa.

But at the same time, realism is also evident, including in the slogan put forward on the eve of the summit, which is posted everywhere-both in the meeting rooms and on posters on the streets of Addis Ababa - " Rise up! Africa 2063, Prosperity and Peace". In other words, the "African Dream" (Africa Vision 2063), the dream of the founders of the OAU - to build, as the Chairman of the AU, Prime Minister of Ethiopia Hailemariam Desalegn said at the opening, "a peaceful, prosperous and united Africa"9 is expected only by the next anniversary of the AU, in half a century.

The Chairperson of the AU Commission, N. Dlamini-Zuma, rightly pointed out that Africa has many "tough questions"to answer.10

A more "sober" attitude to the issues of African integration is also noteworthy. Thus, in his second speech, Hailemariam Desalegn referred to Africa in 50 years only as "economically integrated", while Museveni directly stated his disagreement with the idea of political integration of the continent, put forward by "the late Gaddafi". The Ugandan President called regional integration plans more realistic, emphasizing that the East African Community aims to become a political federation.

In general, there is still a lot of work to be done. The Commission's "Strategic Plan for 2014-2017" adopted at the 21st Assembly of the AU identifies 8 priority areas of the AU Commission:

1. Human development with a focus on health, education, science, research, technology and innovation;

2. Agriculture and processing;

3. Inclusive economic development through industrialization, infrastructure development, agriculture, trade and investment;

4. Peace, stability and good governance;

5. Equal participation of women and young people in all our activities;

6. Resource mobilization;

7. Building a people-centered Union;

8. Strengthening the organizational capacity of the Union and all its bodies 11.

The relevant AU entities have developed specific measures to promote and inform African citizens about the implementation of the Plan so that they can participate actively in the process.

Addis Ababa also adopted a "Solemn Declaration" dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the OAU / AU, which in the process of African integration places special emphasis on the development and unification of regional economic communities "as building blocks of the Union", on "accelerating the process of achieving the goals of the African Economic Community", the creation of a " continent-wide free trade zone"12.

page 8

The Declaration promises to make Africa "conflict-free" by 2020, ending "all wars on the continent" .13

Africa is not shutting itself off from the outside world, but is determined to take "its rightful place in the political, defense, economic and social systems of global governance", become a "leading continent", "build up its own strength and self-sufficiency", and find "African solutions to African problems"14.

Much attention was paid to the African diaspora at the summit, which was undoubtedly connected with the theme of pan-Africanism, initiated by its representatives. Thus, the second plenary session was addressed by the Prime Minister of Jamaica P. S. Miller, who highlighted the fact that the AU recognized the Diaspora as its 6th region, along with the northern, western, central, eastern and southern parts of the African continent. However, it is still unclear what such recognition will mean in practice.

Today, Africa's place and role in world affairs has significantly increased. They want to interact with her, and they listen to her opinion.

This was also reflected in the high representation of a number of non-African countries at the jubilee summit. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, Brazilian President Delma Rousseff and French President Francois Hollande attended. Hollande, Vice-President of India Hamid Mohammad Ansari, Vice-Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China Wang Yang, President of the National Assembly of Cuba E. L. Hernandez, US Secretary of State John Kerry Kerry. Russia was represented by the President's Special Representative for Cooperation with African Countries, Mikhail Margelov.

With all the possible caveats (continued poverty, disease, etc.), Africa has made a major economic breakthrough. The" Etekwini Declaration "of the 5th BRICS Summit, held on March 26-27, 2013 in South Africa (Etekwini is the current name of" Greater Durban"), justifiably refers to the"steep growth trajectory of the African continent" 15.

Overall, security and crisis situations are better than in the past, although events in North Africa, Mali, the Central African Republic, and Nigeria have disrupted the seemingly steady trend towards stabilization on the continent.

This is what representatives of the two countries that maintain the most extensive and diverse relations with Africa say about Africa.

Chinese President Xi Jinping stated at the BRICS-Africa Leaders ' Meeting in Durban on March 27, 2013: "Without peace and development in Africa, there would be no stability and prosperity of our planet. Without the participation of African countries in international affairs, there can be no question of their proper settlement. Without Africa's voice, the global governance system would not be viable. The twenty-first century will be the "century of Africa" " 16.

President of the United States B. Obama, who visited South Africa, Tanzania, and Senegal in late June and early July, spoke of "a new relationship between the United States and Africa - a partnership based on equality and common interests."17

Americans are concerned that China has overtaken them in terms of investment in Africa. It is possible that the United States will also invest more in the African economy.

RUSSIAN-AFRICAN COOPERATION

Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the OAU / AU gives us an opportunity to take a fresh look at the history and current state of Russian-African relations.

If today's Africa is noticeably superior to yesterday's Africa, then today's Russia in Africa is significantly inferior to the" African yesterday " of the Soviet Union.

There is a lot of good and critical writing about Soviet policy in Africa during the Cold War. But few people will deny that supporting the struggle of peoples against colonialism, providing all possible assistance to the liberated states in strengthening their independence was an important direction of the USSR's foreign policy. Yes, as part of the confrontation with the West, but this does not change the fact that in those years the USSR was on the side of the West.

page 9

Africa in the struggle for its just cause. And this is the main thing.

In the first post-Soviet years, Russia, if not completely withdrew from Africa, then sharply reduced its presence there. We are currently debating this issue. Some people think we're already " back." I think, however, that it would be more accurate to say: "Russia is coming back."

Russia is not the USSR. More pragmatism, no ideological messiahship, less ambition, and so far, alas, less strength.

In February 2013, a new version of the Russian Foreign Policy Concept was approved. "The main task of Russia's international activity is to create favorable external conditions for economic recovery, its transition to innovative tracks, and improving people's living standards," writes Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov in the article "Russia's Foreign Policy Philosophy" 18.

National selfishness? But it is common to all states. The question is how to achieve your goals. It is important to solve your tasks not at the expense of others, not imposing your will on them, but through mutually beneficial cooperation, based on international law. Russia is committed to following this course. Its policies are open and predictable.

Yes, today Russia has fewer ambitions. But she has them, and we don't hide it. Russia has sufficient resources to play "the role of one of the key centers"in international relations. As Sergey Lavrov notes, it is about forming a "polycentric system of relations ""in the interests of ensuring the collective leadership of the world's leading states, which should be representative in geographical and civilizational relations." 19

In the years after the Cold War, Russia and Africa learned from their own experience how harmful the unipolar model threatens to become for the world. In terms of strengthening multipolarity, the interests of Russia and Africa fully coincide, and this creates a good and healthy basis for their multilateral cooperation in the international arena.

The African Union is called upon to become one of the centers of multipolarity, and Russia is ready, to the best of its ability, to contribute to the further growth of its international influence and its contribution to collective action to find answers to common challenges.

Let's not be disingenuous. Africa is not a top priority for Russia. In the Concept of foreign policy of the Russian Federation among the regions in the first place - the CIS. This is unlikely to raise questions.

But Africa is present in the Concept. On the main directions of Russia's African policy, it says:: "Russia will expand its diverse cooperation with African states on a bilateral and multilateral basis, with a focus on improving political dialogue and promoting mutually beneficial trade and economic cooperation, as well as helping to resolve and prevent regional conflicts and crisis situations in Africa. Developing partnerships with the African Union and sub-regional organizations is an important part of this line. " 20

President Vladimir Putin's congratulatory message on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the OAU /AU indicates that partnership with the African Union will be enhanced within the framework of the UN, the Group of Eight, the Group of Twenty and BRICS 21.

BRIEFLY ABOUT HOW RUSSIA IS "RETURNING" TO AFRICA

Political contacts. Over the past 13 years, Presidents Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev have visited 8 African countries. Over the years, 12 African leaders have visited Russia.

On March 26, 2013, the Russian President paid a brief working visit to South Africa, where he took part in the BRICS summit. In the development of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Partnership (2006), Vladimir Putin and the President of South Africa, John Kerry The Zuma countries signed a "Joint declaration on establishing a Comprehensive strategic partnership between the Russian Federation and the Republic of South Africa". Familiarization with its text convinces that the partnership is planned to be truly comprehensive. It will be implemented in the political, trade and economic, scientific and technical, defense and humanitarian fields, and the parties intend to cooperate in the fight against international terrorism, separatism, organized crime and drug trafficking.

It also provides for such a new direction of bilateral cooperation as "inter-integration" - through the establishment of regular contacts between Eurasian and African integration associations. This refers to the Customs Union, the Common Economic Space, and in the future - the Eurasian Economic Union, on the one hand, and the African Union, the South African Development Community (SADC) and the South African Customs Union (SACU), on the other.

The presidents of the Russian Federation and South Africa agreed that they will meet at least once every two years, and the foreign ministers will meet at least once a year. Inter-parliamentary exchanges and contacts at the level of heads of chambers and committees will be expanded 22.

A new meeting between Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Zuma took place in Sochi on May 26, 2013 - not two years later, but only two months later. The plan is "overfulfilled".

But you need to be realistic. During our visit to South Africa, we particularly noted a significant increase in trade turnover between the two countries - from $580 million in 2011 to

page 10

$964.35 million in 2012,23 However, the South African minister responsible for economic affairs rightly reminded one of the authors of this article that this growth is from a rather low level. South Africa also welcomes the growth of Russian investments, but notes that they are mainly "traditional" investments in the mining sector, while this country is interested in diversifying them.

Another important contact is the visit of the Chairman of the AU Commission N. Dlamini - Zuma to Moscow. Assessing the results of the talks held on April 29, 2013, Sergey Lavrov noted that the positions of the Russian Federation and the AU are fundamentally similar or coincide on most of the issues discussed on the international and regional agenda.24

Economic relations. Russia and Africa are united by the fact that nature has endowed them with huge reserves of minerals. Not everyone likes it. Some call for "restoring justice" and recognizing these resources as "common property". So they have something to protect together.

But it also has its own dialectic. According to some experts, by 2018, the Russian Federation is expected to deplete profitable and currently exploited reserves of 13 types of mineral raw materials, including zinc, chromium, quartz, and even gold and oil25. The remaining deposits of these types of raw materials available in Russia are geographically and geologically difficult to access, and their development requires huge investments and a long time, as a result of which the extraction of these raw materials in Africa, including transportation to Russia, is more economical. As a result, Russia's interest in Africa's mineral resources is growing, and this creates another incentive for developing economic cooperation with it.

Trading. From 2000 to 2012, the volume of Russian-African trade increased 7.5 times. The absolute figures, however, are modest - from $1.6 billion. up to $12.2 billion 26. You can't compare it with China and the United States. In addition, North Africa accounts for more than half of the trade turnover, which is dominated by mineral resources and foodstuffs.27

And yet the growth is evident. Russia has eliminated all customs duties in trade with the least developed countries, most of which are African.

Traditionally, weapons are supplied. In 2012 - by almost $1 billion. Rosoboronexport estimates that this is approximately 25% of the African arms market28.

Russian investment in Africa is also growing, although again the figures are modest in absolute terms. Accumulated direct investment, according to internal Russian sources, amounts to about $9 billion. The amount of capex announced by the companies in 2013-2020 is $17 billion 29. However, the African Development Bank already estimates Russia's investment at $20 billion.30 The discrepancies are solid, but perhaps the AfDB has more accurate information.

From 80 to 90% of investments are made in the exploration and production of mineral resources.

13 of the largest Russian companies operate in 25 African countries. Renova (manganese, ferroalloys)is the leader among them, Rusal, Norilsk Nickel, Evraz (vanadium), Lukoil. According to the signed contracts, the investment of each of these companies ranges from $1 billion. up to $2.5 billion. Lukoil intends to add another 2 - 2.5 billion rubles to its billion. Gazprom is still lagging behind (about $500 million), but plans to invest an additional 3.5 - 4 billion rubles. Severstal has serious plans. The company wants to increase its current investment of $200 million to $ 2.5 billion in 2015 and $ 6.5 billion in 2015. - in 2024 31

Currently, most of the projects are in South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Ghana.

Russia and aid programs for Africa. A significant action was the cancellation of debts of African countries on loans of the Soviet Union in the amount of $20 billion. According to this indicator, Russia ranks 1st among the Group of Eight member countries.32

Russia's official development assistance (ODA) increased by 8.8% in 2011 compared to 2010. Sub - Saharan Africa received 28% of this assistance-about $150 million.33

$75 million was allocated for energy security, including due to fluctuations in energy prices, in 2007-2010, $235 million for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, and $244 million for ensuring food security in developing countries (2009-2011) .34 Due to the drought of 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Russia helped Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Mali, Guinea, DRC, Cote d'Ivoire' To the Ivory Coast.

In the USSR, 25,000 Africans received higher education.35 Over the past four years, Russia has allocated $43 million to World Bank programs aimed at improving the level of education in developing countries, especially in Africa. Today, about 8,000 students study at Russian universities. Students are from Africa, of which about half are on state scholarships 36. Previously, 750 scholarships were awarded annually to African countries. 37 Starting from 2013, this figure is planned to increase to 1 thousand. Some difficulties in using these scholarships are related to the fact that they are provided without paying for travel and sufficient living allowances.

Russia participates in UN peacekeeping operations in Africa. The contribution of Russian air groups to these operations was highly appreciated. Let's honor the memory of our pilots who died in South Sudan.

African peacekeepers are being trained - up to 400 annually 38.

page 11

Representatives of the Russian Federation and African countries cooperate productively at the UN. The parties ' common approaches to the reform of the Organization and its Security Council are similar or coincide. Both Russia and the African Union believe that reform is overdue and that the Security Council should be expanded to make it more representative and effective. Russia recognizes Africa's right to permanent membership in the UN Security Council.

The specifics are more complicated. Africa demands two permanent seats in the UN Security Council and an increase in the number of non-permanent seats allocated to it from three to five.39

According to Russia, the expansion of the Security Council should not be excessive. It should remain compact and not turn into a "mini-General Assembly". It is necessary to seek the widest possible support for the upcoming reforms from the UN Member States. It is preferable to reach a consensus.

The situation is complicated by the fact that three countries - Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa-are applying for permanent membership in the UN Security Council, and the AU member states have not yet been able to agree on which of them should be delegated to the Council.

Russia and China expressed their position on this issue in the "Etekwin Declaration" of the BRICS summit in March this year. While confirming "the importance they attach to the status of Brazil, India and South Africa in international affairs," Russia and China "supported their desire to play a more significant role in the UN."40 However, what exactly is meant by "more significant role" - did not explain.

RUSSIA, AFRICA AND BRICS

BRICS is a very promising channel for Russian-African cooperation.

As noted in the Concept of the Russian Federation's Participation in BRICS Unification, its creation in 2006 "was one of the most significant geopolitical events of the beginning of the new century." 41 The Russian Federation " stands for positioning BRICS in the world system as a new model of global relations built on top of the old East - West or North - South dividing lines."42.

According to the Etekwin Declaration, the future of the association is presented to the summit participants as" the progressive development of BRICS and its transformation into a full-fledged mechanism for current and long-term coordination on a wide range of key issues of the world economy and politics "43.

The holding of the 5th BRICS summit in South Africa naturally placed the African vector of its policy in the center of attention of the five countries ' work. But this is not a tribute to the market situation. Africa rightfully occupies an important place on the agenda of this forum. The discussion was conducted in the context of global issues and decisions were made for the future.

The topics discussed were very relevant: "BRICS and Africa: Partnership for Development, Integration and industrialization" 44.This was followed by a forum-dialogue with African leaders on "BRICS-Africa infrastructure cooperation"45. Apart from J. R. R. Tolkien. Africa was represented at the dialogue by the Presidents of 11 States, the President of the AU, the Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Hailemariam Desalegn, and the Chairman of the AU Commission, N. Dlamini-Zuma.46

The decisions taken at the summit correspond to the AU's program settings. We can say that BRICS and Africa spoke the same language in Durban.

The Five expressed "concern about the slow pace of IMF reform", which "should strengthen the voice and representation of the Organization's poorest members, including sub-Saharan Africa."47

The summit participants expressed their intention to continue efforts aimed at the "early successful conclusion of the Doha Round of Negotiations" of the World Trade Organization( WTO), the results of which should reflect "key concerns on the development agenda of the poorest and most vulnerable WTO members", and supported the election of a developing country's representative as the next WTO Director General (such in May 2013 was Brazilian R. was elected. Azevedo)48.

For their part, the leaders of the BRICS countries expressed "support for the integration processes on the continent" and the efforts being made in this direction by the African Union and the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD)49." We will strive to promote infrastructure based on mutual benefits to promote industrial development, create jobs, and improve the skills of personnel to ensure food security and nutrition security, as well as to eliminate poverty and ensure sustainable development in Africa, " the 50 Declaration says.

The commitment expressed in the Declaration to develop multilateral agreements between BRICS and African banks in the field of financing sustainable development and infrastructure projects is of fundamental importance.51

When considering the situation on the continent, the summit participants expressed " deep concern about the spread of instability from North Africa, especially the Sahel zone, as well as the Gulf of Guinea." It noted with concern "the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in a number of countries" 52. The BRICS Heads of State supported the efforts of the Government of Mali and its partners in the international community "in implementing the transition program aimed at holding presidential and parliamentary elections" and expressed their readiness to "contribute to the process towards a peaceful settlement of the conflict" in the Central African Republic.-

page 12

They welcomed the signing in Addis Ababa on 24 February 2013 of the Framework Agreement on Peace, Security and Cooperation for the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Region. 53

The Declaration recognizes "the central role of the African Union and its Peace and Security Council (MSB)in conflict resolution in Africa" and calls on the UN Security Council to strengthen cooperation with the AU and the MSB54.

At the dialogue forum, African leaders unanimously called for an accelerated expansion of partnership relations between Africa and the BRICS countries.

On May 23, 2013, a group of African Ambassadors to the Russian Federation held a conference dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the OAU/AU at the Peoples ' Friendship University in Moscow. The past and present of the continent were discussed in detail, and forecasts for the future were made. In his speech, the Ambassador of Benin G. Kochofa rightly noted that BRICS is polycentrism in action, and African states benefit from it, since their relations with BRICS countries are more balanced than with Western countries, and the very existence of BRICS gives them freedom to choose partners.

We believe that the process of Russian-African cooperation will expand and strengthen both at the continental and global levels.


1 http://www.kremlin.ru/letters

2 OAU Charter and Rules of Procedure. Published by the Division of Press and Information of the OAU General Secretariat. May 1981. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Article II l.d. P. 10.

3 Ibid. Preamble. P. 9.

4 Ibidem.

5 Ibid. Article II, 2.a-f. P. 10.

6 A Dialogue of the Deaf // Essays on Africa and the United Nations. The Centre for Conflict Resolution. Cape Town. 2006. Fanele - an Imprint of Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd. P. 167.

7 From the OAU to AU. The Challenge of African Unity and Development in the Twenty First Century. Nigerian Institute of International Affairs. Lagos. 2004. P. 16.

8 Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the OAU/AU Opening and Debate on the Pan Africanism and African Renaissance. Press Release N29/21st AU Summit. May 25,2013 - http://sum-mits.au.int/en/ sites/defaults/files/PR%2029 - 21ST%20OAU%20SUMMIT%20-%20Africa%20AT%20FIFTY_f_0.pdf

9 Ibidem.

10 Ibid.

11 African Union Commission's Strategic Plan 2014 - 2017 Adopted by Assembly - http://summits.au.int/en/21stsurnmit/events/african-union-commission%E2%80%99s-stratrgic-pl an-2014 - 2017-adopted-assembly.

12 African Union 50™ Anniversary Solemn Declaration (C, Ci, Cii) -http://summits.au.int/en/sites/default/files/50%20DECLARATION%2 OEN^df

13 Ibid. (E, Ei)

14 Ibid. (G, Gi, H)

15 Etekwin Declaration and Etekwin Plan of Action. March 27, 2013. Item 12 - http://news.kremlin.ru/ref_notes/1430 (hereinafter referred to as the Etekwin Declaration).

16 BRICS - Africa Leaders ' Dialogue - http://ru.chma-embassy.org/rus/zgxw/tl027020.htm

17 Remarks by President Obama at Business Leaders Forum. Dar es Salaam Tanzania - http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/ 07/01/rmarks-president-obama-business-leaders-forum

18 International life. 2013, N 3. P. 2.

19 Ibid., p. 5.

20 The concept of Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation. February 12, 2013 Regional priorities - http://www.mid.ru/brp_4. nsf / 0/6D84DDEDEDBF7DA644257B160051BF7F

21 http://www.kremlin.ru/letters

22 Joint Declaration on establishing a Comprehensive Strategic Partnership between the Russian Federation and South Africa http://news.kremlin.ru/ref_notes/1428

23 Customs statistics of foreign trade of the Russian Federation 2011-2012.

24 http://interaffairs.ru/read/php7item-9440

25 Russia in the competitive struggle for African Mineral Resources, Moscow, 2011, pp. 33, 38.

Ustinov I. N. 26 Foreign trade relations of Russia // Statistical Collection, Moscow, 2001; Customs statistics of Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation 2011-2012.

27 World Trade Atlas 2010; Customs statistics of Foreign Trade of the Russian Federation; UNECA; The African Development Bank Group. Chief Economist Complex. African Economic Brief: Russia's Economic Engagement with Africa. Vol. 2. Issue 7. 11 May, 2011.

28 Modern Russia as an arms exporter - www.me-moid.ru/node/sovremennaya_Rossiya_kak_ehksportjor_oruzhiya; Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 17.12.2012.

29 Sources: annual reports of companies; public statements of managers and representatives of companies; The African Development Bank Group. Chief Economist Complex...

30 The African Development Bank Group. Chief Economist Complex... P. 3.

31 Direct investments of large Russian companies in African countries. Sources: Annual reports of companies. Public statements of managers and representatives of companies. The African Development Bank Group. Chief Economist Complex...

32 Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov's remarks at receptions for heads of diplomatic missions of African countries on the occasion of Africa Day on May 27, 2009 and May 30, 2013.- http://www.mid.ru/bdomp/brp_4.nsf/2fee282eb6df40e643256999005e6 e8c / eb6c2edcl4bfd3e7c32575c4003a751b!OpenDocument; http://www.mid.rU/brp_4.nsf/0/43A270363B8B27FE44257B7B004A5 6F4

33 Report on Russia's Participation in International Development Assistance in 2011 16 May 2012 - http://www.hse.ru/org/hse/iori/news/ 52861851.html; Statements of the leadership of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation -http://www.minfin.ru/ru/press/speech/index.php9id4 - 16351

34 Director of the Department of International Financial Relations of the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation A. Bokarev on the results of the Russian Federation's contribution to the promotion of international development. 2011 - www/minfin/ru/ru

35 Countries of Africa, 2002, Moscow, Institute of Africa, 2002, p. 80.

36 http://www.pravda.rU/restofworld/africa/l8 - 10 - 2012/1131759-africa debt-0

37 http://www.mid.ru/bdomp/brp_4.nsf/2fee282eb6df40e64325 6999005e6e8c/eb6c2edcl4bfd3e7c32575c4003a751b!OpenDocument

38 Ibidem.

39 The Common African Position on the Proposed Reform of the United Nations: "The Esulvini Consensus". African Executive Council. 7™ Extraordinary Session. 7 - 8 March, 2005. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ext/EX.CL/2(VII).

40 Etekwin Declaration. Item 20.

41 Concept of the Russian Federation's participation in BRICS integration. Пункт 3 - http://news.kremlin.ru/media/events/files/41d452 a8a232b2f6f8a5.pdf.

42 Etekwin Declaration. Item 11.

43 Etekwin Declaration. Item 2.

44 Ibid. Point 1.

45 Ibid. Item 3.

46 BRICS - Africa Leaders ' Dialogue...

47 Etekwin Declaration. Item 13.

48 Ibid. Paragraphs 15 and 16.

49 Ibid. Items 4 and 5.

50 Ibid. Item 5.

51 Ibid. Item 12.

52 Ibid. Item 24.

53 Ibid. Paragraphs 30, 31, and 32.

54 Ibid. Item 24.


© elibrary.org.uk

Permanent link to this publication:

https://elibrary.org.uk/m/articles/view/AFRICA-RUSSIA-AND-THE-50TH-ANNIVERSARY-OF-THE-OAU-AU

Similar publications: LGreat Britain LWorld Y G


Publisher:

Jack DowlyContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster: https://elibrary.org.uk/Dowly

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

E. N. Korendyasov, A. Y. Urnov, V. G. Shubin, AFRICA, RUSSIA AND THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE OAU / AU // London: British Digital Library (ELIBRARY.ORG.UK). Updated: 24.01.2024. URL: https://elibrary.org.uk/m/articles/view/AFRICA-RUSSIA-AND-THE-50TH-ANNIVERSARY-OF-THE-OAU-AU (date of access: 23.02.2024).

Found source (search robot):


Publication author(s) - E. N. Korendyasov, A. Y. Urnov, V. G. Shubin:

E. N. Korendyasov, A. Y. Urnov, V. G. Shubin → other publications, search: Libmonster Great BritainLibmonster WorldGoogleYandex

Comments:



Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Publisher
Jack Dowly
London, United Kingdom
32 views rating
24.01.2024 (30 days ago)
0 subscribers
Rating
0 votes
Related Articles
MILITANT ARABIA
Catalog: Military science 
Yesterday · From Jack Dowly
AFRICAN ALBINOS: SURVIVAL CHALLENGES
Catalog: Sociology 
2 days ago · From Jack Dowly
ISLAMIC STATE: CAUSES AND PROSPECTS
Catalog: Other 
9 days ago · From Jack Dowly
SUMMARY
Catalog: History 
15 days ago · From Jack Dowly
"AND WE WILL TAKE OUR FEATHERS..."
Catalog: Literature study 
15 days ago · From Jack Dowly
THIS CONTRADICTORY GLOBAL ECONOMY - WHAT'S NEXT?
Catalog: Economics 
16 days ago · From Jack Dowly
РЕБЕККА ХАЙЛЕ ЗАНОВО ОТКРЫВАЕТ ЭФИОПИЮ
Catalog: Other 
16 days ago · From Jack Dowly
INDIA: A NEW STRATEGIC PLANNING ORGANIZATION?
Catalog: Other 
16 days ago · From Jack Dowly
USSR - EGYPT: STAGES OF RAPPROCHEMENT
Catalog: History 
16 days ago · From Jack Dowly
SUMMARY
Catalog: Political science 
18 days ago · From Jack Dowly

New publications:

Popular with readers:

News from other countries:

ELIBRARY.ORG.UK - British Digital Library

Create your author's collection of articles, books, author's works, biographies, photographic documents, files. Save forever your author's legacy in digital form. Click here to register as an author.
Library Partners

AFRICA, RUSSIA AND THE 50TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE OAU / AU
 

Editorial Contacts
Chat for Authors: UK LIVE: We are in social networks:

About · News · For Advertisers

British Digital Library ® All rights reserved.
2023-2024, ELIBRARY.ORG.UK is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of the Great Britain


LIBMONSTER NETWORK ONE WORLD - ONE LIBRARY

US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

Download app for Android