Libmonster ID: UK-1405


Doctor of Political Science

Primakov Institute of World Economy and International Relations

Keywords: East Asia, environmental problems, security, environmental policy, "green development"

For East Asian countries, ensuring environmental security is directly related not so much to the threat of international conflicts caused by competition for limited natural resources and their degradation (conflicts over international water resources, competition for natural resources in the South China Sea), but rather to the prospects for achieving economic and social progress.

In the end, environmental degradation becomes a drag on the economic progress of East Asian countries and leads to a loss of competitiveness of their economies focused on foreign markets, where in recent years the requirements for the environmental quality of goods and services have become tougher.

The impact of environmental processes on security is assessed in different ways: traditionally-as a direct cause of internal and international conflicts, which often take the form of armed clashes. And more broadly-in the interrelation of environmental, development and security issues. In this case, the main issue becomes the destabilizing impact of the environmental crisis on the socio-economic and political development of the country, on the aggravation of internal problems that can pose a threat to national, regional and global security.

Most often, the direct result of environmental degradation is a decrease in the growth of agricultural production, a general decline in economic activity, an aggravation of the problem of poverty and an increase in social disparities, political instability, ethnic and religious conflicts.

With all the diversity of the countries that make up East Asia and the multiplicity of their development, it is necessary to highlight the common cause of the aggravation of their environmental problems - the development of an industrial society with its inherent attitudes towards increasing economic growth, which is provided extensively through the overexploitation of natural resources and environmental pollution.

East Asian countries are among the most dynamically developing countries. But for their economic growth, they have paid a high environmental price, which is measured by economic and social losses equivalent to 5-13% of GNP. The aggravation of the ecological situation in the region is manifested in the degradation of water and land resources, increased emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere and water space, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, and destruction of ecosystems.

Many East Asian countries, putting the environmental problem among the priorities of national security, declare the need to change the traditional approach to development, expressed in the formula "first you need to get dirty, and then think about the cleanliness of the environment", which resulted in the transformation of the region into one of the most environmentally unstable in the world.


The Chinese leadership is now openly speaking about the environmental threat that is looming over the country, which can undermine the stability of the existing economic and political system. The proliferation of environmental problems in China has become extremely dangerous for the country. First, due to the special impact of the demographic factor on very scarce natural resources: according to Chinese experts, the population, in terms of resource availability, is one and a half to two times higher than the "optimal level". Secondly, due to the scale of mistakes made by the country's leadership in the implementation of the project.

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the policy of the "great leap forward" and the "cultural revolution", which increased the inevitable environmental costs of forced industrialization. Therefore, the environmental losses of economic modernization in China are higher compared to other developing countries. If the average figure for the East Asian region is 5%, then for China this figure reaches 13% and increases from year to year1.

According to official statements, three issues pose a particular threat to the country's security : water quality, urban air pollution, and land degradation. According to WHO, 7 of the 10 dirtiest cities in the world are located in China, including Beijing. Only 9 out of 161 cities that monitor air quality meet the requirements of the new environmental standards introduced in 2014.

According to a recent Berkeley Earth study, air pollution kills 4,000 Chinese people every day, or 1.6 million people a year, accounting for 17% of the total fatalities.2 The death rate in China from poor ecology* is 4 times higher than in developed countries3. The high level of air pollution, which increases health care costs and leads to a loss of labor productivity**, results in an annual damage to the economy of 6.5% of GNP. And this amount will increase as the urban population increases.

Acid rain causes damage to one-third of the country's territory. About 27 % of land is turned into deserts (between 1994 and 2009, the annual growth rate of desert areas increased from 2,300 square kilometers to 3,500 square kilometers, causing $8.3 billion in economic damage to the country4), and 37% of land is undergoing soil erosion. All this, combined with the aggravation of the water problem, is becoming a constraint on the growth of agricultural production. In Central China, every piece of land is used; in Northern China, there is land but no water.

China is on the verge of the world's biggest water crisis. A third of Chinese cities face a shortage of water supply. And 12.5% of farms do not get enough water (in northern China, this figure leaves 70%), which leads to a loss of yield. Opportunities to meet the growing demand for water (1000 billion cubic meters). m by 2030) are limited, despite the measures taken to increase its reserves. 860,000 water storage facilities with a capacity of 692.4 billion cubic meters were built, which required a huge investment.5

The economic costs associated with the shortage of water resources are supplemented by losses caused by an increase in the level of their pollution - 70% of the water resources of the PRC. The total social losses caused by water pollution are estimated at 60,000 premature deaths annually, not to mention the fact that, in general, the unfavorable situation with the quality of water sources threatens 360 million Chinese people.

The tendency to aggravate environmental contradictions persists, which is supported by the following points. The country's competitiveness in the global economy is largely ensured by minimizing investments in the environmental and social sectors within the framework of the extensive economic growth model. The associated irrational nature of the use of natural resources (with a concomitant increase in waste production) is compounded by the increasing burden on natural systems by a growing population. And this threatens global changes in global commodity markets and can provoke conflicts of interests of states competing for access to natural resources in the world. Even today, China is forced to meet its growing needs for them through foreign trade operations. Over the past ten years, the country has made a qualitative leap in consumption, which in Western civilization took a hundred years.

Opportunities to meet these needs are already limited***, and this threatens the prospects for economic development and the growth of socio-economic conflicts in society. Environmental degradation poses an increasing threat to the maintenance of political stability, as it can weaken the economic basis of existing political power and cause an increase in social tensions.

Some experts consider the possibility of developing environmental protests into a general democratic movement. In extreme conditions, such as a sharp aggravation of the water problem, social discontent in society can manifest itself in the form of mass political mobilization with the threat of weakening the CCP's power in the country.

The PRC has reached such a milestone in its development when there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental component of the national economy.-

* Public health risks are comparable to those faced by the UK 50 years ago.

** China is losing 64 million hours of labor every year due to the growing number of pollution-related diseases.

*** The area of arable land per capita in the PRC is only one-third of the demand by world standards, fresh water resources - one-quarter, and forest resources and vegetation cover-only one-sixteenth. China has 25% less water per inhabitant than the global average.

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development strategies. As in the early 1980s, when the state started implementing market reforms, so today, when it is planning structural changes in the economy, interest in environmental issues is sharply increasing. The lack of natural resources raises the question of their rational use, which, in turn, meets the interests of intensifying economic development and moving the country to a qualitatively new stage of industrial development based on the latest achievements in science and technology. The latter should also provide China with competitive advantages in the global market.6

That is why, along with the tightening of pollution control measures, 7 those areas of environmental activity that also have high economic returns are becoming objects of increased state interest: the development of alternative energy sources, 8 the introduction of "green" technologies, and improving the resource and energy efficiency of the economy. This is a necessary condition for its further modernization on a qualitatively new technological basis and a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, according to which China has reached the 1st place in the world.

In the 11th five-year plan, the state for the first time put forward the task of developing a "green" economy. In the 12th five-year plan (2011-2015), the goal was to reduce the intensity of hydrocarbon content per unit of GNP by 17% and energy intensity by 16% by 2015, increase the share of non - fuel energy resources by 3.1%, reduce emissions of sulfur oxide by 8% and nitrogen oxide by 10%. water consumption per unit of industrial output - by 30%, loss of acreage - by 25-26%, increase the area of forests by 1.3%.

The People's Republic of China has declared a policy of creating eco-civilization, the concept of which was approved by the National People's Congress in 2013 and has since become a political program for the country's development. Building eco-civilization (a purely Chinese phenomenon that has no analogues in the world), according to Chinese President Xi Jinping, represents the "Chinese dream" of modernizing the country in accordance with the ideas of socialism with Chinese characteristics. 9 We are talking about making a strategic transition from extensive industrial and agricultural production, based on the intensive use of natural resources, to an innovative society based on the development of modern technologies.

Putting forward the task of building a "green" society is used by the authorities as an argument justifying the reform of state-owned companies, tax and judicial reforms,as well as other large-scale changes in the country10. China's new green Development program prioritizes environmental criteria over GDP growth when evaluating the performance of local governments, and also introduces public reporting on their environmental performance into the practice of enterprise management.11

According to the country's leaders, China will have to show the world a new scenario of neo-industrialization based on the development of new technologies, rational consumption of natural resources, reducing environmental pollution, and fully realizing the benefits of the country's huge human potential.

Setting this task at the highest political level is the government's response to the growing environmental crisis in the country and marks a new stage in the implementation of measures aimed at ensuring environmental safety*. The very fact of setting such a task indicates a serious concern of the Chinese authorities about the aggravation of the environmental situation, which can slow down further economic growth. In addition, China is under strong political pressure from the international community, which is concerned about climate change and the role of the PRC in this process.

But ensuring environmentally sound development depends not only on the political will of the country's leadership, which today faces considerable difficulties in implementing the new course - there are not enough financial and technical resources, support from local authorities, who still give priority to the economic values of development. But the main difficulty lies elsewhere - in the need to restructure the entire economy. The lack of modern production technologies, not just environmental technologies, raises the question of China's ability to stop the process of destroying nature in the coming years. The leadership is also not committed to implementing political reforms related to increasing public participation in the decision-making process. And without this, many measures in the environmental sphere are doomed to failure.

Therefore, it is not necessary to talk about the creation of an effective environmental safety system in China today. China's environmental situation is likely to get even worse before it improves.


In comparison with China, the environmental situation in South Korea does not look so good

* Since January 1, 2015, China has implemented an updated Environmental Protection Law (replacing the old one from 1989), which meets the new needs of greening the country's development.

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dramatic, which is ensured by a fairly effective environmental policy of the state. But just as in China, the appeal to the problem of environmental protection is motivated primarily by economic considerations - to give an impetus to economic development, the growth rate of which began to decline, which indicates the exhaustion of the implemented model of catch-up development in its industrial version. The solution to this problem was considered by the former President of the country, Lee Myung-bak, as part of the implementation of the "green" growth strategy, the main means of implementation of which were to be the achievements of scientific and technological progress. As former Prime Minister Kim Hwang-sik told the Korea Herald, " Korea, which was lagging behind in the development of environmental science in the world, is now becoming the object of global attention thanks to the proclamation of a green growth policy. "12

The green growth project, adopted in 2009 and designed to last until 2050, was supposed to lead to structural changes in the country's economy - the predominant development of knowledge-intensive and technological industries to increase the economy's energy efficiency and competitiveness by creating export opportunities for a new industry of green technologies, goods and services. Investments in" green " technologies accounted for 25% of the total R & D investment 13.

It was planned to allocate $83.6 billion in the 1st five-year Green Development Plan (2009-2013) for the development of new "green" sectors of the economy. (2% of GNP), which was twice the amount recommended for this purpose by the UN. It was expected that the implementation of the "green development" strategy, which was considered as a new revolution, would lead to an increase in production by $140-160 billion (with an economic growth rate of 5% per year) and create more than 1.5 million jobs. And the per capita income will increase from $20 thousand to $30 thousand.

The concept of "green" development was interpreted as part of taking measures to reduce the threat of climate change. Their implementation should increase the credibility and influence of South Korea in the world as a responsible member of the international community, ready to make voluntary commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (by 30% by 2020) and avoid possible application of trade restrictions against it by European countries.

The green growth strategy of both South Korea and China is an integral component of their export-oriented development. It is based on the ambitious goals of using their technological resources, enabling them to take a leading position in the world. Thus, according to estimates made by the Ministry of High Technology of South Korea back in 2009, the share of these technologies in the global market was expected to reach 15% by 2015, and revenue from their sales - $36.2 billion.14 The transition to a green economy reduces dependence on imported energy resources through the development of renewable energy sources (their share in the structure of energy consumption should increase from 2.6% to 11% by 2020).

Similar to the situation in China, interest in the new development model came primarily from the country's leader. Since its change in 2013, there have also been changes in the assessment of "green" growth. Mainly the economic motivation of the proposed development strategy weakened its environmental significance. But it was not only the environmental component of the green growth strategy that suffered from shortcomings, and the inevitable costs that business is forced to bear during the restructuring to new development guidelines were also not calculated. Thus, the Ministry of Science-intensive Economy planned to allocate $6.7 billion for the development of modern technologies. during the first five years of implementation of the green development strategy, and the contribution of private business was expected to amount to $83.6 billion 15. Businesses are very dissatisfied with the project to create a market for the sale of carbon dioxide quotas, the implementation of which will cost them $26.7-28.9 billion. for three years 16.

The new Government does not yet have a clear idea of how to ensure environmentally sound development. Does this mean a departure from the proclaimed strategy of "green" growth? Rather, we are talking about slowing down the exchange rate and adjusting it to take into account technological capabilities and reduce the threat of loss of competitiveness of the leading sectors of the economy (steel, automotive, chemical industry, shipbuilding) in the short term.

The availability of modern technologies that are required to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and improve industrial energy efficiency is only 50% of the level of developed countries. Large investments in the development of renewable energy and other "green" technologies have not led, however, to their commercialization and creation of markets, which reduces the material interest of businesses in them. Despite the verbal support for the idea of "green development", the society is still poorly informed about the problems it faces and considers itself exempt from responsibility for solving them.

Now we are talking about the implementation of a new concept under the conditional name "Green Growth 2.0" with a content that has not yet been developed. It is said about the creation of the so-called creative (creative) economy, based, according to the word-

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Thank you to President Park Geun-hae, at the confluence of information technology, culture and industry.


The problem of ensuring environmentally sound development attracts special attention of the leaders of the countries of South-East Asia today. The Southeast Asian countries have been demonstrating steady economic growth over the past decades, which has made it possible to improve the well-being of the population. But a high environmental price was paid for this. And, apparently, the situation in the field of ecology will only worsen due to the following factors: 1) increased economic development; 2) improving the material situation of the population; 3) increasing its population; 4) urbanization; 5) globalization of trade and increasing demand for natural resources in the region; 6) rapid growth of energy needs 7) impacts of climate change 17.

The growing environmental tensions in the Southeast Asian countries pose a threat to their security. This threat is caused, firstly, by the loss of natural capital, the need for which increases with the growth of industrial production and incomes of the population, while maintaining a significant stratum of the poor who exist at the expense of the use of natural resources. Secondly, there is an increasing risk to the health of the population experiencing the consequences of environmental pollution - deterioration of the quality of water resources and air, primarily in cities.

Unlike South Korea and China, the Southeast Asian countries ' economic growth was largely driven by the use of vast natural capital. The wasteful nature of nature management can be judged by the volume of energy consumption in Southeast Asia, which increases annually by 4% per year, and by 2020 it will increase 3 times compared to 1990. This is largely due to the high energy intensity of the Southeast Asian economies.18 Intensive exploitation of renewable and non-renewable natural resources, such as forests, fisheries, and minerals, which laid the foundation for accelerated industrialization of the region's countries, has resulted in their degradation. Southeast Asian countries are projected to lose 75% of their forests and 42% of their biodiversity by 2100.

Airborne particulate pollution in cities in Vietnam, Indonesia, Myanmar and Cambodia is 4 times higher than in Germany and France. The economic cost of air pollution in Indonesia is estimated at $5.5 billion. per year, or 1.3% of GNP 19. A 20% reduction in the concentration of solid substances in Bangkok's airspace will generate revenue estimated by indicators of improving the health status of the Thai capital's population in the amount of $400 million - $1.6 billion, and the profit from reducing the concentration of lead will be $300 million - $1.5 billion 20.

A serious problem for most countries in Southeast Asia is the contamination of water bodies and groundwater with heavy metals, acids, and oils. According to IBRD estimates, preventing water pollution in Indonesia can bring economic benefits due to a 50% to 60% reduction in population mortality in the amount of $213 million to$315 million.21 Indonesia has the worst rates of access to clean water in the region-30% of the urban population and only 10% of the rural population.

All these problems will increase with climate change, the consequences of which are already evident in the intensity of natural disasters. About 20 typhoons hit the Philippines every year, and in 2013, Typhoon Haiyan cost the country's economy $192 billion and killed 6,300 people. The economic damage of Southeast Asian countries from climate warming will amount to 6.7% of GNP annually by 2100, which is 2 times higher than the global average.22

The dramatic environmental degradation in all Southeast Asian countries calls into question the sustainability of their extensive economic development model. Its implementation does not guarantee the sustainability of the economic system, limiting the resource base of production (both natural and human). According to the ASEAN secretariat, "the irretrievable depletion of regional natural resources and environmental degradation will have far-reaching consequences for the regional ecosystem and the maintenance of quality of life."23

Setting the task of efficient use of natural resources is primarily based on the internal development needs of the Southeast Asian countries. But the changes taking place in the global economy and politics give an additional impetus to the intensification of their actions to create a "green" low-carbon economy-the conditions for increasing their competitiveness in the world. Former Philippine President Fidel Ramos, at a meeting of Asian leaders in 2010, urged them to follow the green economy model, even if it would lead to painful transformations.24

The decision to switch to a green growth strategy, which the Southeast Asian countries joined, was made back in 2005 at the 5th Conference of Ministers of Environmental Protection of the Asia-Pacific countries. The proclamation of this goal gave a clear focus to the environmental policy of the Southeast Asian countries.

In Thailand, the concept of " zele-

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It is reflected in the strategy of "Self-Sufficiency Economy", which is integrated into the overall context of the country's socio-economic development (the 11th five-year socio-economic development Plan -2012-2016) and is aimed at maintaining the parity of environmental and economic development values (this gave an impetus to the development of clean production and a" green " industry without the need for damage to economic progress).

Cambodia has adopted the National Green Growth Roadmap (NGGR). The state's interest is mainly focused on the development of hydropower in order to ensure the country's energy security and reduce the cost of electricity - it is one of the highest in the world.

Another environmental issue of concern to the international community in the country, as well as difficulties in obtaining international loans and official assistance, is the accelerating process of destruction of tropical forests. The country's authorities have announced their readiness to preserve 60% of the territory's forest land and increase the area of community forestry by 2 times by 2029.

The Indonesian Government is also focusing on the conservation of tropical forests, which declined by 6 million hectares between 2000 and 2012. Indonesia has surpassed Brazil in terms of their extermination rate. The country's authorities have set a target of achieving zero deforestation, which will ensure 90% fulfillment of their stated commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26% by 2020 (and, with international support for these voluntary commitments, by 30%).

With international financial support, Indonesia has been implementing a program (REDD+) since 2009 to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by introducing a moratorium on new logging operations and issuing licenses for palm oil production.

The transition to green development also means changing the structure of energy consumption through the use of renewable energy sources, the share of which should increase from 4% in 2006 to 15% by 2025, largely due to the production of biofuels, on the territory of 10 million hectares of land by 2025.

Vietnam has set an ambitious goal of creating a green economy by 2050 that will conserve natural capital and reduce greenhouse gas emissions while increasing the growth rate of economic production. Energy consumption per unit of GNP will decrease by 1.5-2% per year, the intensity of greenhouse gas emissions will decrease by 8-10%, and if international support is received, this figure will be doubled.25

Given the large differentiation in the level of socio-economic development of the Southeast Asian countries, it can be assumed that the process of creating a low-carbon "green" economy in the sub-region will be stretched over time and will be accompanied by the emergence of leaders and outsiders.


Malaysia and Singapore are among the clear leaders in implementing the policy of environmentally sound economic development - they, like China and South Korea, adhere to the course of implementing the "green" revolution based on the development of "green" technologies.

The inclusion of the environmental imperative in the economic development strategy at an early stage of industrialization allowed Singapore to avoid an aggravation of the environmental situation with an increase in economic production. Over the past 10 years, its residents have started using 64% more electricity, 21% more water, and 21% more waste. In this regard, the following goals were put forward for 2030: to reduce energy consumption by 35% compared to 2005; to ensure optimal use of land; to achieve 70% recycling of waste; to reduce the volume of water consumed in the household to 140 liters per day per person, to make 80% of all buildings "green", to reduce by 16 greenhouse gas emissions in case of adoption of an international agreement, and in its absence - by 7-11%.

Malaysia has recognized green growth as a fundamental principle of its forward-looking 2020 economic development agenda. The authorities have set a goal to increase the volume of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption to 11% by 2020, which will bring the economy income in the amount of $22.8 billion, create 50 thousand new jobs and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40%. Already, the country's "green" industry is estimated at $21.8 billion, and its annual growth is 6%.

But just as in China and South Korea, the environmental policies of Singapore and Malaysia are directly dependent on their investment and trade policies, which fit into the overall context of their export-oriented development model.

* * *

Although the long-term development plans of the countries of the region set out the tasks of creating a "green" economy, their implementation is delayed. Limited financial resources and technological resources, inefficient institutional framework for environmental management, persistent skepticism-

page 54

cynicism about the idea of sustainable development-all this weakens the political will and determination of the state to take effective measures in the field of ecology. Therefore, the question of the prospects for "green" development in the Southeast Asian countries remains open.

As Emil Salim, a former Indonesian environment minister, pointed out, "we can't solve problems on our own. Indonesia, like other developing countries, faces a similar dilemma in the transition from fossil fuels to clean energy sources under external pressure. Renewable energy technologies are expensive. And when the state is faced with a choice between food for the poor or renewable energy technologies, it chooses the former. " 26

Ensuring environmental safety requires finding a balance between the economic and environmental interests of development. But this balance, as the development experience of East Asian countries shows, is difficult to maintain if economic interests continue to be a priority. The concept of "green" development does not yet provide a clear answer to environmental challenges. But this does not mean that it is inherently wrong. Today, it is rather an experiment, the success of which depends on many factors-economic, technological and, of course, political. And the impetus for its implementation at the national level is the politicization of the problem of climate change at the global level, which imposes obligations on East Asian countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This, in turn, dictates the choice of means to solve this problem with a predominant focus on improving the efficiency of using natural resources based on the development of clean energy sources and clean technologies.

Ensuring environmental safety in East Asian countries implies greening the process of economic development, which, undoubtedly, will last for more than one decade. Therefore, today we can only make assumptions about the general directions of the search for funds to minimize environmental damage to the economic development of the countries of the region.

Wong E. 1 Cost of Environmental Damage in China. Growing Rapidly amid Industrialization // The New York Times. 29.03.2013.

2 Air pollution in China is bad, REALLY bad // Environmental News Network. 20.09.2015 -

3 See for more details: Kranina E. I. Problemy ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti Kitay [Problems of environmental safety in China]. 2015, N 3, pp. 13-18 (Kranina E. I. 2015. Problemy ecologicheskoi bezopasnosti Kitaya // Aziya i Africa segodnya. N 3) (in Russian)

Jiahua Pan, Haibing Ma and Ying Zhang Isa Mastny, ed. 4 Green Economy and Green Jobs in China. Current Status and Potential for 2020. World Watch Report 185. Washington. 2011, p. 8.

Lyu Xing. 5 Stress and Challenges: What's Facing China's 'Nine Dragons of Water' // Journal of the East Asia Foundation. Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 2015.

6 In early 2006, the Chinese Government announced a 15-year plan to invest in the development of new technologies to promote economic growth and environmental safety. Spending on science should increase to 2% of GDP, followed by an increase to 2.5% - see: The International Herald Tribune. 09.02.2006.

7 In 2014, the Government of the People's Republic of China announced the implementation of a national program to combat atmospheric pollution, which involves reducing the share of coal in the country's energy consumption to 62% by 2020, and gradually removing polluting equipment and vehicles from circulation. It is also planned to subsidize the consumption of natural gas, the development of nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. According to experts, the implementation of these measures will require 3 times less funds compared to the losses incurred by China due to air pollution.

8 In 2010, the goal was set to achieve 15 GW of solar energy production by 2015. By the target date, this volume has exceeded 100 GW. Today, China has become the world's leading market for solar energy production, valued at $23.5 billion.

9 Environment And Society for Green Development. 2013 Policy Research. Report on Environment and Development. Ed. by Fang Li, Li Yonghong, Li Haiying. China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development. 2013, p. 15.

Rosen Daniel H. 10 Avoiding the Blind Alley: China's Economic Overhaul and its Global Implication. Executive Summary. Report. Produced In Collaboration An Asia Society Policy Institute With Rhodium Group. New-York. October 2014.

11 Following public requests, the Ministry of Ecology checks the activities of companies for compliance with environmental safety standards. If violations are detected, they are subject to penalties that range from receiving warnings to closing the business. Article 59 of the updated law on environmental protection introduces new rules of punishment for polluting enterprises: fines will increase daily in proportion to the damage caused to the environment and public health.

12 The Korea Herald. 11.10.2013.

Sang In Kang, Jin-gyu Oh, Hongseok Kim. 13 Korea's Low-Carbon Green Growth Strategy. A Case Study. Working Paper No. 310 OECD. Development Centre. 12 March 2012, p. 20.

14 Promising Investment Opportunities: New and Renewable Energy. Invest KOREA. January 2013, p. 23.

Sang In Kang, Jin-gyu Oh, Hongseok Kim. 15 Op. cit., p. 18.

16 S.Korean firm says planned carbon market flawed, wants delay. 18.07.2014 -

Zbicz D. 17 Asians Future. Critical Thinking for a Changing Environment. USAID. September 2009.

18 From 1980 to 2011, energy intensity improved by only 12% compared to the global average of 26% and 38% in OECD countries, 74% in China and 44% in India. - См.: Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia. OECD 2014, p. 27.

19 Investing in a More Sustainable Indonesia. Country Environmental Analysis 2009. The World Bank Group, Washington. 2009, p. 8.

20 Thailand Environment Monitor. World Bank, Bangkok. January 2000, p. 5.

21 Indonesia Environmental Monitor 2003. Manila, 2004, p. 30.

Brommelhorster Jorn. 22 The economics of climate change in Southeast Asia: A regional review. Asian Development Bank 2009 - http: //

Elliott L. 23 Environment, Development and Security Issues and Responses. 13 Asia Pacific Round Table. 30 May - 2 June 1999. Kuala Lumpur, p. 5.

24 Development Asia. January-March 2012, p. 5.

Pham Hoang Mai. 25 Progress on the Viet Nam Green Growth Strategy. Update on Recent Developments. Presentation for the PMR PA5 meeting. Washington DC. March 2013.

26 Development Asia. January-March 2012.


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