Libmonster ID: UK-1417

trade in services Keywords:export of servicesimport of servicesIndiaSouth Asia

N. V. GALISHCHEVA

Candidate of Economic Sciences

MGIMO (U) of the Russian Foreign Ministry

Technological changes, increasing labor mobility, lower transport and communication costs, and the growth of global trade in goods have contributed to the accelerated development of trade in services. Between 1999 and 2011, the volume of world trade in services increased almost 3-fold , from $1.45 trillion to $4.17 trillion.1

The world economy of the late XX - early XXI centuries has largely turned into a service economy. According to data for 2011, the volume of world trade in services reached 1 / 4 of trade in goods 2. At the same time, according to Indian economist Suparna Karmakar, "the revolution in the service sector around the world has changed both the geographical map of business and the very ways of doing it."3

One of the most characteristic features of India's economic development since the early 1990s has been a significant increase in its foreign trade in services, which is primarily due to the rapid development of information and communication technologies (ICTs). Software (software) production, business process outsourcing, e-commerce (e-commerce), and telecommunications sectors in India grew at unprecedented rates in the 1990s and 2000s, exceeding 50% in some years and consistently outpacing the growth in trade in goods.

THE "SERVED FROM INDIA" BRAND

In 2004, the Indian Government, emphasizing the importance of the country's participation in international trade in services, outlined the main directions of development of trade in services in the Foreign Trade Policy of 2004-2009 (Foreign Trade Policy 2004-2009). So, in particular, the task was to consolidate the unique brand "Served from India" on the world market by analogy with the brand "Made in India" (Made in India). In addition, along with the introduction of schemes to assist Indian service providers abroad, a special Services Export Promotion Council was established in November 2006 under the auspices of the Ministry of Trade and Industry of India. Currently, the council identifies promising areas of activity in key areas in markets that are strategically important for India, and in cooperation with leading Indian companies develops programs for their entry into world markets, including a mechanism for creating Indian brands. In addition, this institution examines the state of service markets in foreign countries, provides participants with the necessary commercial information about promising service markets abroad, provides professional advice on technological equipment upgrades, improving product quality in accordance with international standards and requirements, and helps organize contacts of interested Indian structures with foreign partners. It also works with Chambers of Commerce and Industry, trade associations and other similar entities both in India and abroad to promote the export of Indian services. As a result of a competent policy of stimulating the development of the service sector and promoting services abroad, the volume of their exports in total Indian exports of goods and services is steadily increasing and, according to data for FY2011 / 12 (April 2011 - March 2012) reached almost 33%4.

The structure of Indian trade in services according to the balance of payments is divided into four main groups: tourism, transport, insurance and other commercial services, including manufacturing

page 27

Table 1

Indian trade in services in the 2000s ($ billion)

 

Fiscal year 2007/08

FY 2009/10

Fiscal year 2010/11

201 FY 1/12

Tourist. services:

 

 

 

 

Export

11,349

11,859

15,275

18,462

Import

9,258

9,342

11,108

13,762

Balance sheet

2,091

2,517

4,167

4,700

Transportn.usl.:

 

 

 

 

Export

10,014

11,178

14,271

18,241

Import

11,514

11,934

13,880

16,382

Balance sheet

-1,500

-0,756

0,391

1,859

Strakhov. usl. :

 

 

 

 

Export

1,639

1,591

1,948

2,632

Import

1,044

1,285

1,400

1,497

Balance sheet

0,595

0,306

0,548

1,135

Others:

 

 

 

 

Export

67,010

70,977

100,206

102,513

Import

29,298

36,944

56,856

45,806

Balance sheet

37,667

34,033

43,350

56,707

Total:

 

 

 

 

Export

90,012

95,605

131,700

141,848

Import

51,114

59,505

83,244

77,447

Balance sheet

38,898

36,100

48,456

64,401



Source: Compiled by the author of: Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Third Quarter (October-December) of 2010/11 / / RBI Monthly Bulletin. December 2010 - http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/BS_Press ReleaseDisplay.aspx?prid=24155; Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Fourth Quarter (January-March) of 2011/12 / RBI Monthly Bulletin. August 2012 - http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Bulletin/PDFs/lDIBPA1008 12F.pdf

Software, royalties*, license fees, financial services, construction, communications and other business services.

Indian trade in services is based on services related to software production and business process outsourcing, as well as transportation and tourism services.

In contrast to trade in goods, trade in services has traditionally (with the exception of certain years) been reduced to a surplus. Thus, in FY2010 / 11, India exported $131.7 billion worth of services, while it imported only $83.2 billion worth of services, while in FY2011 / 12, these figures were $141.9 billion and $77.5 billion, respectively.5

At the same time, a large positive balance in trade in services is provided primarily due to services related to software production and business process outsourcing, the finished product of which is not significantly burdened with infrastructure load.

RAPID GROWTH IN SERVICE EXPORTS

In recent decades, gross revenues from the export of services have increased significantly-from $4.5 billion (19.7% of total revenues from the export of goods and services) in FY 1990/91 to $20.3 billion. (30%) in FY1/2002, 95.8 billion rubles. (34%) in FY2009 / 10 and $141.9 billion. (31.4%) in FY2011 / 12.6 As a result, India has consistently ranked among the world's top ten service exporters in recent years.7. According to International Trade Statistics, India ranked 6th in terms of services exported in 2011.8

Overall, India's share of world service exports in 1980-2011 increased from 0.78% to 3.5%9.

The annual growth rate of service exports in the 2000s averaged about 20%, which is more than twice the global average.10 At the same time, exports of tourism, transport and other commercial services are highly dynamic, with average annual growth rates estimated at 13%, 21% and 17%, respectively, in calendar 2000 - 2011. At the same time, the "other commercial services" section highlights the growth rates of computer and information services (about 30%), financial services (28%), insurance services (about 20%) and communication services (15%)11. Particularly stable growth rates are typical for the export of services related to software production, which even in the crisis years - fy2008/09 and fy2009/10 - showed positive dynamics of 7-10%. The level and scale of technologies used is a determining factor in improving the country's competitiveness in the service sector. The branches of the tertiary sector of the economy (service) differ significantly depending on the ratio of basic and advanced factors used in them (labor, capital, technology, etc.). Such industries as aviation and railway transport, telecommunications,


* Royalties - periodic compensation, usually monetary, for the use of patents, copyrights, natural resources and other types of property (approx. ed.).

page 28

Table 2

Growth rate of Indian service exports in 1980-2009 (%)

Pre-reform period (1980-1991)

Post-reform pre-crisis period (1991-2007)

Post-reform crisis period (2008-2009)

India

Total in the world

India

Total in the world

India

Total in the world

Transportation services

8,39

5,80

12,49

6,92

10,0

-3,0

Travel services

3,51

11,89

10,78

6,54

0,0

0,5

Other services

0,72

9,62

25,53

10,25

1,0

1,5

Total (average growth rate of service exports)

2,49

9,08

19,34

8,27

-0,17

0,5



Source: Compiled and calculated by the author of: International Trade Statistics - http://www.wto.org/english/ res_e/statis_e/its201

housing and communal services, etc., are capital-intensive, while construction and tourism are labor-intensive. Although a number of emerging market and developing countries have made significant gains in trade in services over the past decade, only a few of them have been able to show significant growth in the service sector and increase its overall competitiveness. As in trade in goods, in trade in services, India initially developed labor-intensive industries, as well as those where it is possible to effectively use the existing natural resource potential (construction, tourism, etc.). As its scientific and technical potential developed, India began to supply the world market with more "advanced" and technically complex ones products and services.

Thus, during the period 1980-2011, the industry structure of India's service exports as a whole underwent drastic changes (see Table 3). First of all, there was a significant (almost 4-fold) reduction in the share of tourist services and an increase in "other commercial services".

TRANSPORT IS ALSO A SERVICE

Indian statistics, based on the world classification, includes services for the provision of passenger and cargo transportation services in transport services. Of course, the successful functioning of the entire national economy largely depends on how well this segment of services is developed. At the same time, an important role is assigned to the Planning Commission12, which uses indicative methods to synchronize the development of logistics in India with the needs of a fast-growing economy.

The share of transport services in the industry structure of Indian service exports, in general, increased until 1996, when a "historical maximum" was recorded (27.7%) .13 To a large extent, this increase can be explained by a noticeable increase in economic activity in the country in the 1990s, against the background of successful liberalization and, as a result, an increase in foreign trade. All this inevitably led to the accelerated development of transport operations both inside and outside the country. Subsequently, the share of transport services in the total volume of services began to decline, primarily due to an increase in software exports, which radically transformed the "basket" of services provided by India. In addition, this process was also influenced by the global trend of reducing the transport component in the cost of transported goods. Currently, the share of transport services in the industry structure of service exports is on average about 11%.

At the same time, India's share in global exports of transport services increased 3.3 times in the 2000s: from 0.6% in 2000 to 2.0% in 2011. However, this indicator is still small in comparison with other leading countries of the world economy (for comparison, China has this indicator at the level of more than 3%). Nevertheless, India is one of the top ten largest countries in the world.-

page 29

Table 3

Industry structure of Indian service exports according to the IMF classification (%)

 

1980/81 fiscal year

1990/91 fiscal year

Fiscal year 2000/01

Fiscal year 2010/11

Fiscal year 2011/12

Total

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

100,0

Travel agencies

54,2

33,8

21,5

11,6

13,0

Transport

15,6

20,8

12,6

10,8

12,9

Others

30,2

45,4

65,9

77,6

74,1



Source: Compiled and calculated by the author of: Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Fourth Quarter (January-March) of 2011/12 / RBI Monthly Bulletin. August 2012 - http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Bulletin/ PDFs/tDIBPA100812F.pd; Burange L.G., Chaddha SheetalJ., Kapoor Poonam. India's Trade in Services // University of Mumbai. Department of Economics. July 2009. P. 12 - http://www.mu.ac.in/arts/social_sience/eco/pdfs/ depart/dwp55.pdf; Economic Survey 2009/10/ Government of India. Ministry of Finance. Department of Economic Affairs. Economic Division. February 2010. P. 166.

among the largest exporters of transport services, it ranked 10th in 2009 and 8th in 201114.

TOURISM BOOM

Tourism has become one of the fastest growing sectors of the global economy in general, and the Indian economy in particular. According to the Executive Director of the World Tourism Organization (UN Agency), in 2011 the number of foreign tourists in the world reached 990 million people, and in 2012, according to preliminary data, it will exceed 1 billion people. 15

The Indian tourism industry is based on a number of complementary components, including: the hotel industry; relevant local shopping, entertainment and transport infrastructure (road, river, air, railway, mountaineering and other tourist routes of varying complexity); numerous travel and advertising agencies; a system for providing modern telecommunications and public utilities; government tourism development programs. legal regulation of tourism activities, both at the international and national levels; various state and non-governmental structures, including international ones related to the tourism sector, etc.

Among the obvious advantages of the development of tourism in India can be identified: increased employment of workers of various qualifications; the emergence of additional opportunities for business development in a number of sectors of the economy related to tourism; an increase in tax revenues to the budget from tourism and related industries (sales taxes, income taxes, when leaving the country, rent payments for the use of land, etc.); improving the infrastructure of rural and remote regions of the country; stimulating the inflow of foreign currency; further development of the service sector as a whole.

The development of tourism is especially relevant for the economically underdeveloped states of India, where, along with a fairly high unemployment rate, there are also very significant natural and recreational resources. It is noteworthy that over 70% of international travelers are just so-called recreational tourism.

The tourism sector makes a significant contribution to India's GDP (over $100 billion in 2008, or 8.2% of GDP at current prices). This figure is expected to increase to $275.5 billion by 2018. with an expected industry growth rate of about 9.4% per year16. At the same time, the Indian tourism industry employs 8.78% of all employees in the economy 17.

Due to the growth of income from tourism, the wages of employees employed in both this and related sectors of the Indian economy-transport, agriculture, food processing, handicrafts, etc. - are also growing accordingly. As a result, the consumption of Indian households increases to a certain extent, which, in turn, begin to spend more on food, clothing, services, etc., thereby increasing their own consumption. Accordingly, the incomes of those employed in industry, agriculture, and services begin to grow, and they, in turn, consume more goods.

Thus, the funds spent by tourists have a multiplicative, or multiplying, effect, as a result of which a whole chain of subsequent (secondary, tertiary, etc.) consumer spending is created. As a result of this multiplicative effect in

page 30

Table 4

Industry structure of Indian service exports in the 2000s (%)

 

Fiscal year 2000/01

FY 2009/10

Fiscal year 2011/12

Total

100,0

100,0

100,0

Travel services

21,5

12,4

13,0

Software production

39,0

51,9

43,9

Transportation services

12,6

11,7

12,9

Insurance services

1,7

1,7

1,9

Business services

2,1

11,9

18,3

Financial services

2,1

3,9

4,2

Communication services

7,0

1,3

1,1

Other services

14,0

5,2

4,7



Источник: Составлено и рассчитано автором по: Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Fourth Quarter (January-March) of 2011/12 // RBI Monthly Bulletin, August 2012 - http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Bulletin/ PDFs/1 DIBPA100812F.pdf ; Economic Survey 2009/10. Government of India. Ministry of Finance. Department of Economic Affairs. Economic Division. February 2010. P. 166.

Each unit of currency spent in the tourism sector on services and goods stimulates an increase in production and consumption in India, as well as positively affects the aggregate demand in the economy and the size of GDP. International tourism has also been an important factor in improving India's balance of payments.

On the other hand, attracting a significant number of tourists to India also brings negative aspects: in particular, it leads to an increase in the harmful impact on the environment, including unique natural areas that are still preserved in their original form in a number of regions of the country; pollution of water bodies, air from transport exhausts, etc.; seasonal increase in the load on the ecosystem in in general, as well as on regional and urban public utilities and transport systems. In addition, the negative impact on the physical condition of architectural monuments is also growing. The Government and a number of NGOs are currently paying serious attention to addressing these issues.

Tourism services, occupying more than 1/10 of the Indian export basket of services, are one of its most important components.

At the same time, the growth rate of tourism services exports in India in the 1980s was lower than in the 1990s (3.51% and 10.78%, respectively), which, on the one hand, is explained by the opening of the Indian economy in the early 1990s, which led to an increase in business trips, an increase in the welfare of the population, in general, and the growth of the middle class, in particular, and on the other hand, the noticeable development of so-called medical and spa tourism (hydrotherapy) during this period. The growth rate of tourism services exports in 2000-2011 accelerated even more and amounted to an average of 13%.

India's share in global tourism exports in the 2000s It increased more than 2.2 times: from 0.7% in 2000 to 1.6% in 2011.18 According to The World Economic Forum, India ranked 65th among 130 countries in terms of tourism competitiveness, while it ranked 11th among Asian countries. In addition, the country is richly endowed with recreational resources (ranked 13th in the world), natural and climatic diversity, and has many cultural and historical monuments of world heritage that attract foreign tourists.19

With its extensive experience in providing a variety of tourism services-from beach holidays and mountain tourism, including mountaineering, to pilgrimage to holy sites, as well as medical and educational tourism-India, according to some analysts, also has a competitive price advantage for tourist holidays (20th place in the world). At the same time, the country has an extensive modern air service network (35th place in the world). and a well-developed tourist infrastructure (ranked 39th in the world), including hotels, retail outlets, culture and sports, as well as very attractive domestic transport 20.

All this largely contributed to the growth of the number of visitors to India, which in 2004 - 2011 increased by more than 1.8 times. In 2011, 6.5 million visitors visited the CE. foreign tourists 21.

At the same time, foreign currency revenues from tourism increased almost 3-fold over the same period and amounted to $16.6 billion in 201122. Overall, in 2009 India was ranked 41st among the most visited countries in the world. At the same time, the successful development of tourism services has a positive impact on both increasing the well-being of the Indian population employed in the tourism and tourism sectors.-

page 31

It also affects the overall economic growth of the country. International tourism is an important factor in improving India's balance of payments.

THE MOST DYNAMIC SERVICES ARE INFORMATIONAL ONES

It was the other commercial services sector that allowed India to achieve high annual growth rates in its services exports (25.5% in 1991-2007) .23 However, in the context of the global financial and economic crisis, the growth rate of services exports fell to 14.4% in 2008 and 14.7% in 2009 due to serious economic problems in a number of countries. developed countries, primarily in the United States and the European Union.

In the period from FY 2000/01 to FY 2011/12, the industry structure of services exports was also radically transformed, where the share of business services increased from 2.1% to 18.3%, and software production - from 39.0% to 43.9% (in FY 2009/10 - 51.9%), respectively. At the same time, the share of tourism and communication services decreased from 21.5% to 13.0% and from 7.0% to 1.1%. At the same time, the share of transport and insurance services remained almost unchanged (about 12% and 1.7%, respectively).24.

Table 4 presents data on the industry structure of Indian service exports in accordance with the expanded classification of the balance of payments of India, which covers the section "other services"in more detail.

The most dynamically developing segment here is the information and computer technology sector. At the same time, the factors that ensured India's success in exporting software on the international stage were:

- relatively cheap, but at the same time quite skilled English-speaking labor force. With significant resources of IT specialists, qualified engineers and technicians of various specialties, India, according to some foreign estimates, is on the 4th place in the world in terms of the number of qualified labor force employed in the field of IT. The quality of technical education provided in India in the last two decades has increased markedly and is generally at the level of advanced powers. At the same time, the average salary of an ordinary Indian specialist is an order of magnitude lower than that of his colleagues in developed countries.;

- the difference in time zones with the leading European and North American countries, which are the main consumers of Indian services, allows India to successfully engage in outsourcing;

- rapidly improving infrastructure of the telecommunications sector (including due to the competent privatization carried out in the 1990s-2000s).;

- institutional and legislative measures taken by the Indian leadership have made it possible to turn the country into a dynamically developing technological center. Among them, the constant expansion of the network of research universities, innovation clusters, and technology parks; timely updating of the legal framework that ensures the protection of copyrights and transmitted confidential data, etc., which facilitates the conduct of Internet business and the work of IT companies, are particularly highlighted.

(The ending follows)


1 International Trade Statistics. Various Issues http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2012_e/itsl2_trade_cate gory_e.pdf

2 Ibidem.

Karmakar Supama. 3 India - ASEAN Cooperation in Services - An Overview // Supama Karmakar. Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. Working Paper N 176. New Delhi. November 2005.

4 Рассчитано автором по: Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Fourth Quarter (January-March) of 2011/12 / RBI Monthly Bulletin August 2012 - http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/ Bulletin/PDFs/lDIBPA100812F.pdf

5 Calculated by the author of no: Government of India. Economic Survey 2009/10. P. 126. Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Macroeconomic and Monetary Developments in 2010 - 11 - http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/ Publications/PDFs/MMD3004111 FL.pdf

6 Developments in India's Balance of Payments during the Fourth Quarter... // Economic Survey 1995/96 / Government of India. Ministry of Finance. Department of Economic Affairs. Economic Division. February 1996; Economic Survey 200.9/10. Government of India. Ministry of Finance. Department of Economic Affairs. Economic Division. February 2010. P. 166.

7 International Trade Statistics...

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

Burange L.G.. Chaddha SheetalJ., KapoorPoonam. 10 India's Trade in Services. University of Mumbai, Department of Economics. July 2009. P. 12 - http://www.mu.ac.in/arts/social_science/eco/pdfs/depart/ dwp55.pdf

11 Calculated by the author from: International Trade Statistics...

12 http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Planning_Commission_(India)

Burange L.G., Chaddha SheetalJ., Kapoor Poonam. 13 Op. cit. P. 13.

14 International Trade Statistics...

Dikshit Rajeev. 15 'Per foreign tourist spending maximum in India' // The Times of India, 11.10.2012.

16 http://www.trcollege.net/articles/100-impact-of-tourism-in-india; http://www.gdrc.org/uem/eco-tour/envi/index.html

17 Indian Tourism Statistics - http://scstsenvis.nic.in/tourinflow. html

18 Calculated by the author on: International Trade Statistics...

Burange L.G., Chaddha Sheetal 19/., Kapoor Poonam. Op. cit. P. 15.

20 Ibid. P. 16.

Dikshit Rajeev. 21 Op. cit.

22 Calculated by the author from: Indian Tourism Statistics..; The Executive Times. February, 2006. P. 33.

23 International Trade Statistics...

24 Economic Survey 2009/10..; International Trade Statistics...

. Ashmyanskaya I. India and Global Outsourcing, or "Bangalore-ization" of the world economy / / Asia and Africa Today, 2007, N 1; Ashmyanskaya I. Outsourcing: New Horizons for the global economy // Asia and Africa Today, 2008, No. 1.


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