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I. V. DUDINSKY. The Socialist World System - A Living Embodiment of Lenin's Ideas

The author graphically shows that the Communist and Workers' parties of the socialist states and the entire international Communist movement find in Lenin's works an integral conception of the world-wide socialist revolution beginning with the victory of socialism in one country and ending with the triumph of communism on a world scale. This conception contains the initial theoretical propositions concerning the emergence of the socialist world system and indicates ways and means of enhancing the might of the socialist community and increasing its influence on the revolutionary processes developing in all parts of the world. Lenin's teaching indicates the main direction of struggle for the building of socialism in individual countries, the principles of evolving international relations of a new type, ways of strengthening the economic and political unity of the socialist states.

Drawing on extensive factual material relating to contemporary problems of development of the socialist community, the author reveals how the Communist and Workers' parties of the fraternal countries creatively apply and further develop Leninism in their constructive work of building socialism and communism, of augmenting the might of the socialist world system. The truth and viability of Leninism have been borne out by fifty-odd years of the Soviet Union's experience and the 25-year history of the socialist world system. Leninism has become a reliable compass, a powerful weapon of the Communist and Workers' parties, of the working masses in the socialist countries in their struggle for the further consolidation of the socialist community, for the revolutionary rejuvenation of the world.

Y. A. PRIKHODKO. Rehabilitation of Soviet Industry in the Areas Liberated from Nazi Occupation

Following the victorious conclusion of the Great Patriotic War, the Communist Party and Soviet people were confronted by the all-important and exceptionally complicated task of eliminating the consequences of the war in the shortest possible period and continuing the process of consummating the construction of socialist society interrupted by the war. The article highlights the main distinctive features attending the process of postwar industrial rehabilitation launched in all Soviet territories that were temporarily subjected to nazi occupation. The author divides the entire postwar rehabilitation process into the following major stages: 1. July 1945 - December 1946, a period characterized in the main by the reconversion of industry to peaceful production; 2. 1947 - 1948, when industry in the liberated areas made significant progress but did not yet regain the prewar level of industrial production; 3. 1949 - 1950, when the restoration of industry in the liberated areas was completed on the basis of its technical reconstruction.

A. S. TSVETKO. Soviet-Chinese Cultural Ties and the "Special" Course Proclaimed by the Mao Tse-tung Leadership of the Communist Party of China

The article examines one of the less-known aspects of Sino-Soviet relations - the sphere of cultural contacts. The author analyzes the Marxist-Leninist position of the Soviet Union regarding the development of these contacts, citing important data on the scope of China's cultural ties with the Soviet Union and their significance for the cause of socialist construction in the People's Republic of China. Drawing on concrete historical facts, the author reveals the causes that have prompted Mao Tse-tung and his group to use China's cultural ties with the U.S.S.R. in furtherance of their anti- Soviet aims, exposes the unseemly methods employed by Chinese organizations, their attempts at grossly interfering in the Soviet Union's internal affairs and at disseminating amonsj Soviet people Mao Tse-tung's "ideas" that are utterly alien and profoundly inimical to Marxism-Leninism. The author shows the initiative taken by the Mao Tse-tung leadership of the CPC in curtailing, worsening and finally severing the C.P.R.'s cultural

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relations with the U.S.S.R., the baneful influence exerted by the "special" course of Mao Tse-tung and his group, as well as the impact of China's "cultural revolution" on cultural ties with the U.S.S.R. In conclusion the author expresses his firm conviction that the obstacles erected by Mao Tse-tung and his followers to the development of Sino-Soviet cultural relations can only be regarded as an historically transient phenome-

A. G. KUZMIN. "The Lay of Igor's Host" on the Origins of Rus

One of the mysteries about "The Lay of Igor's Host" that are still to be unveiled concerns the original ideas and notions of its author on Russia's remote past. The article makes a new attempt at deciphering the images and vague hints associated with Troyan, a semi-epic character figuring in the earliest history of Russia, The meaning which directly follows from a number of passages of this ancient literary monument permits to consider Troyan the legendary founder of a dynasty of Russian princes, who occupies the place of Rurik in a Varangian legend. The version of "The Lay of Igor's Host" is evidently based on an oral poetic tradition ascending apparently to Boyan, the famous 11th-century folk bard. But it finds indirect confirmation also in certain historical parallels. The non-Varangian conception of the origins of Rus is a valuable testimony to the antiquity and originality of "The Lay of Igor's Host." It originated at a time when the Varangian legend, recorded in the ancient annals, had not yet ousted the preceding notions on the origins of Rus and the lineage of the dynasty of Russian princes. These pre-Varangian versions were totally unknown to the people of Northeast Russia,

V. A. KUCHKIN. Afanasy Nikitin's "Voyage Beyond Three Seas" and Its Place in Ancient Russian Writings

The article traces the destiny of the "Voyage Beyond Three Seas" produced by the famous 14th-century Russian merchant and traveller Afanasy Nikitin. Regarding this work as an oustanding contribution to ancient Russian literature, the author devotes particular attention to the concluding stage of Nikitin's work on his notes describing his visit to India and other countries, as well as to the spread of the lists of his manuscripts in Russia at the close of the 15th century. As distinct from the widespread opinion that Afanasy Nikitin ceased making notes upon reaching the Crimea, the article proves that he continued his work on the "Voyage" considerably later, when he had already arrived in Russia. The author presumes that the rumours of Afanasy Nikitin's wonderful adventures spread far wider than many historians are inclined to believe. When he died in Smolensk about 1473, his manuscripts were brought to Moscow and handed to Vasily Mamyrev, personal adviser to Ivan III, the Grand Prince of Muscovy. Being a highly-educated man for his time, Mamyrev was able to appreciate and estimate the true worth of Afanasy Nikitin's descriptions of his travels. The existence of several 15th-century copies of Nikitin's "Voyage Beyond Three Seas" testifies to the keen interest shown by many contemporaries in Afanasy Nikitin's stories and the wide public response the Tver- merchant's visit to far-off India evoked in the Russian state.

A. N. CHISTOZVONOV. The Concept and Criteria of the Reversibility and Irreversibility of the Historical Process

Historical materialism regards the movement in a spiral course as the predominant form of development of the historical process. But alongside the movement in spirals there exist other laws and regularities of historical development. Among other things, latent in it are tendencies towards both the law-governed progressive and the reverse movement or, in other words, tendencies towards the irreversible and reversible variants of development. The author makes an attempt to raise this problem, proceeding from materials on the history of the genesis of capitalism. The tendency towards the reversible or irreversible variant of the genesis of capitalism began to manifest itself in the European countries at the stage marked by the development of commodity-money economy (14th-15th centuries). It became more pronounced, acquired a neutral character or grew weaker in the process of primary accumulation of capital. But it finally asserted itself in the process of the rise and development of capitalism in each individual country (for the first, manufactory period in the 16th- 18th centuries). The most authentic criterion of irreversibility for this first period is the victory of the early bourgeois revolution in one or another country. Side by side with the victory of the early bourgeois revolutions in the more advanced countries as regards their level of economic development, an in-

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dustrial revolution which creates an adequate technological basis for capitalist production makes the process of the genesis of capitalism irreversible on a scale embracing all European countries, and determining on a world scale.

A. Z. MANFRED. The Nature of the Jacobin Dictatorship

The article examines the main problems concerning the highest stage in the development of the French Revolution of 1789-the period of the Jacobin dictatorship. Surveying the present-day state of world historical literature devoted to the various aspects of Jacobinism and the existence of widely differing views and opinions on these problems, the author proposes his own solutions for a number of controversial issues. Jacobinism, in the author's opinion, must be regarded not as a homogeneous party of any one class but as a party formed by a bloc of the democratic (middle and petty) bourgeoisie, the peasantry and the urban plebs, evolved historically as an alliance of the class forces vitally interested in the victory of the revolution and in consummating its basic tasks. The author also analyzes the nature of the power established after the victory of the popular uprising of May 31-June 2, 1793, regarding it as a revolutionary-democratic dictatorship brought into being by the creative activity of the popular masses. This dictatorship, in which one must be able to discern a definite correlation of classes, represented a combination of the initiative displayed by the popular masses drawn into the revolutionary process from below, through the revolutionary committees, people's societies etc., with the strong centralized power from above, which, according to Robespierre, was boldly waging a "war of freedom against tyranny." Emphasizing that the Jacobin revolutionary- democratic dictatorship could not remove the acute contradictions latent in the very nature of the Jacobin bloc, the author examines the aggravation of these contradictions which precipitated the crisis and disintegration of the Jacobin bloc and ultimately led to the counterrevolutionary coup resulting in the overthrow of Robespierre on the 9th thermidor, 1794.


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