Libmonster ID: UK-1238

BRIC Keywords:RussiaChinaIndiaBrazil

M. L. TITARENKO

Academician, Director of IDV RAS

S. V. UYANAEV

Candidate of Historical Sciences

On April 15, 2010, Brazil hosted the Second BRIC Summit (Brazil, Russia, India and China), which was attended by President of Brazil Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev, Prime Minister of India M. Singh and President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao. Key international policy issues were discussed at the meeting, as well as concrete steps to promote cooperation and coordinate activities within the BRIC.

The summit participants discussed such topics as interaction in the context of international efforts to overcome the global financial and economic crisis and post-crisis development challenges, including within the framework of the G20 summits, topical issues of countering new challenges and threats, including international terrorism and nuclear security in the context of the Washington summit, climate change issues, and new promising areas of cooperation. areas of cooperation in the BRIC format. Regional issues include Iran's nuclear program, the Middle East settlement, and the situation in Haiti.1

Following the consultations, the BRIC leaders adopted a Joint Statement, which reflected a common vision of the current stage of global development.

In particular, it notes that major and rapid changes are taking place in the world, which indicate the need for appropriate changes in global governance in all affected areas. The central role of the G20, the main forum for international economic coordination and cooperation of all its member States, in combating the crisis, was highlighted. The BRIC member countries welcomed the resumption of economic growth, in which emerging market economies play a very important role. However, they acknowledged that the foundation for a global economic recovery was not yet solid; uncertainties remained. "We call on all states to strengthen cooperation in the macroeconomic sphere, jointly achieve a global economic recovery and ensure strong, sustainable and balanced growth," the Statement said.

The BRIC Summit expressed its support for a multipolar, just and democratic world order based on international law, equality, mutual respect, cooperation, coordinated actions of all States and their collective decision-making. It was emphasized that deepening and expanding dialogue and cooperation among the BRIC countries contributes not only to ensuring the common interests of emerging and developing countries, but also to building a harmonious world in which lasting peace and universal prosperity are ensured2

Speaking about the role of the BRIC summits, Dmitry Medvedev noted in an article published on the eve of the meeting in Brasilia that although it is a young forum, it has gained a high international reputation from its very first steps. Its member States account for 26% of the world's territory, 42% of its population, and 14.6% of the world's gross domestic product, with the BRIC countries contributing more than 50% to global economic growth in recent years. "The combination of our countries' comparative competitive advantages creates a situation of mutual benefit in many areas, and gives us unique incentives for cooperation, " the Russian president stressed. - Cooperation between our countries has a great future. Although we are only at the beginning of our journey, the solid foundation of our BRIC dialogue - proven and mutually beneficial partnership relations-allows us to count on the success of this promising forum for the benefit of our countries and peoples."3

The article by M. L. Titarenko, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Director of the Far East Institute, and S. V. Uyanaev, Candidate of Historical Sciences, analyzes the problems of BRIC formation, development trends, and prospects for this format of cooperation.


1 Official website of the President of Russia. BRIC countries are united in their approaches to solving global challenges. 16.04.2010, Brasilia. Press statement following the BRIC Summit - http://news.kremlin.ru/news/7475; www.kremlin.ru

2 Official website of the President of Russia. Joint statement of the Heads of State and Government of the countries participating in the Second BRIC Summit (Brazil, Russia, India, China). 15.04.2010 г. - http://news.kremlin.ru/ref_notes/524

3 Official website of the President of Russia. Dmitry Medvedev's article "BRIC Countries: Common Goals - Common actions", 13.04.2010 - http://news.kremlin.ru/news/7443

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In the last 2-3 years, a rare review of global economic and political processes has been made without mentioning the BRIC countries. Moreover, in various comments and messages on this topic, the sonorous abbreviation that has already become familiar, reflecting the names of 4 countries - "Brazil, Russia, India, China" - is increasingly adjacent to the wording "format"," dialogue","cooperation".

To analyze the prospects of the BRIC, the question of the factors that made it possible to start the cooperation of the "four" and favor its further development is very relevant. In turn, the future of the BRIC is also closely linked to the position of certain countries of the "four", in particular, China, which in recent years has demonstrated the highest and most stable dynamics of development, becoming more and more clearly a power of the global order.

First of all, let's take a closer look at the brief history and evolution of the BRIC concept as a whole.

BRIEF HISTORY

As is well known, the term BRIC was first coined internationally in 2001 by experts from the American investment bank Goldman Sachs.1

Two years later, the bank prepared a special report entitled "BRIC Dreams-The Road to 2050", in which these 4 countries were named the most promising in terms of economic development2. According to the author of the document, an expert on the global economy Jim O'Neill, the BRIC countries by the middle of the XXI century. they will be ahead of the current richest countries in the world. At the same time, China and India will become the world's largest suppliers of industrial goods and services, and Russia and Brazil - raw materials.

It is significant that, having once put forward the concept of BRIC, Goldman Sachs experts made the topic of monitoring the development of 4 countries a regular one, almost every year making new comprehensive reports and publications. In the context of the global crisis, reports have become even more frequent. The most recent ones, published in May, August and November 2009, continued to emphasize the growing global role of the BRIC, in particular, the idea that the BRIC countries are a "driving force" in the "emerging stabilization of the global economic cycle"3.

In Goldman Sachs ' early developments, there was virtually no view of the BRIC countries as an institutional entity, much less as a political alliance or official trade association. The unification of the "four" into a certain general group was largely virtual in nature, was a kind of list of certain countries and, as is obvious, pursued expert research goals: in fact, there was an introduction to political science and expert circulation of another (more specific) term in a series of such concepts as "developing" and "developing countries".developed countries", "golden billion" or the popular term "tigers of Southeast Asia", etc.

But, as Goldman Sachs gradually predicted in subsequent studies, because of their ability to complement each other, the BRIC countries may eventually form a model of cooperation and joint action. In particular, the second comprehensive report, published in 2005, emphasized that "the variable characteristics of the BRIC countries, when the raw material and resource capabilities of some are balanced by the needs of others, along with the demographic factor, allow the BRIC countries to act on the world economic stage on an integration basis"4.

This forecast was quickly justified. In September 2006 and 2007, the first and second meetings of the Foreign Ministers of 4 states were held on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly in New York. An agreement was reached on the gradual development of cooperation in this format, in particular, in the field of trade, economy, and the global financial system5.

Later, as part of the launch of the dialogue mechanism of the foreign ministries, contacts began to be established between embassies and permanent missions in important points for multilateral diplomacy, primarily in New York. In March 2008, a meeting of deputy Foreign Ministers was held in Brazil. As a result, in May 2008, the Foreign Ministers held their first separate, specially prepared meeting. It was held in Yekaterinburg and for the first time ended with the signing of a joint communique 6.

On July 9, 2008, the BRIC dialogue was brought to the highest level - on the sidelines of the G8 meeting in Japan, the first meeting was held by the President of Brazil, the President of the Russian Federation, the Prime Minister of India and the President of the People's Republic of China7. In September 2008, on

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At the next meeting of the foreign Ministers of the four countries in New York, the parties discussed the issue of holding a specially prepared quadrilateral summit, which would be held separately from any forums. Such a summit was held in June 2009 in Yekaterinburg. As a result, a joint Statement was adopted, and it was decided to hold the next meeting of the 4 heads of state in 2010 in Brazil8.

At the same time, there is essentially an industry diversification of quadripartite consultations. In addition to the inter-ministerial meetings on the global financial and economic crisis, the G20 Treasury Heads ' Forums in Sao Paulo in 2008, Horsham (UK) and Istanbul in 2009 also hosted separate meetings of BRIC Finance ministers.9 They discussed, in particular, various issues of reforming and improving the international financial system and developing appropriate consolidated positions. At the end of May 2009, a meeting of responsible representatives of the BRIC countries responsible for security issues was held in Moscow. And 3 months later, the heads of the antimonopoly agencies of the "four"10 held consultations in Kazan.

Thus, in the course of fairly frequent meetings, representatives of 4 countries discuss issues of cooperation in both the economic and political spheres.

The Joint Statement on the results of the Yekaterinburg summit reflects such current and promising areas of cooperation as countering the financial crisis, reforming the global financial and economic architecture, including improving international trade and investment climate, as well as increasing assistance to the poorest countries. The parties intend to cooperate on issues of food security and energy security, improving energy efficiency and countering climate change and natural disasters. Actions in favor of a more democratic and just multipolar world order, in support of multilateral diplomacy with the central role of the UN, and the fight against terrorism in all its forms are also considered important areas.

In March 2010, in Moscow, the BRIC agriculture ministers signed a joint final declaration aimed at coordinating efforts to address global food security. Among the agreed measures to strengthen quadrilateral cooperation in the agri-food sector is the creation of a unified agricultural information base of the BRIC countries.

During the meeting, an agreement was also reached to develop a common strategy for providing nutrition to the most vulnerable segments of the population. As stated in the declaration, the strategy provides for the formation of social food supply systems 12.

PREREQUISITES FOR COOPERATION...

If we talk about the prerequisites, i.e. factors that can be considered as an integrating basis for cooperation between the BRIC countries, then at least a number of them are reflected in joint documents - in the Joint Statement of the BRIC summit in Yekaterinburg, in the May (2008) Joint Communique of the four Foreign Ministers, in a similar document adopted by the BRIC Finance Ministers in March 2009.

First of all, we are talking about commonality, similarity or coincidence of positions on the main problems of our time. The parties defend the common priorities of a polycentric world, building a new and fairer economic architecture, the central role of the United Nations, the inviolability of international law, the non-use of force and the collective way of conducting world affairs. The integrating factor is the same or similar approaches to ensuring international security in its most diverse dimensions, as well as combating new threats and challenges.

Secondly, an important convergence prerequisite is the fact that each of the "four" countries solves internal and external tasks that are similar in their general orientation - the revival and rise of socio-economic complexes, the preservation of self-identity, and the acquisition of a worthy place on the economic and political map of the planet within the framework of globalization processes. In recent years, before the global financial and economic crisis, the " four "countries demonstrated consistently high (first of all, in comparison with the global average) rates of development. This, in fact, served as a reason for singling out the BRIC countries in a separate category of large and influential already today, but, most importantly, rapidly rising powers, which account for a significant share of the growth of the world economy. During the crisis in 2009, Russia's gross domestic product (GDP) fell by 7.9%, 13 which reduced its weight within the BRIC, and Brazil's by 0.2% .14 The preservation of advanced development rates in China and India, the planned return to the previous dynamics in Brazil and the Russian Federation objectively serve as an impulse to search for common ground. It is, on the one hand, about using the complementarity of economies, on the other - about consultations in order to overcome possible divergences of interests.

Third, the situation related to the global economic, monetary and financial crisis seems to be a prerequisite that served as a catalyst for interaction, primarily in the sphere of global finance. The complexity of the tasks that stand in the way of rational reform of international financial institutions, which, along with a number of other countries, the BRIC countries are in a coordinated position to support, determines the need for a long and continuous nature of such interaction.

Another factor that objectively brings the Four countries closer together is the positive development of bilateral relations within the BRIC format. Almost every pair of such relationships has the character of a strategic partnership. Further development of this trend can become the mainstay of a four-sided form of interaction.

Finally, we should single out the prerequisites for the development of cooperation in the BRIC, which are related to the best practices of other international formats that have been functioning for a number of years, primarily the Russia - India - China (RIC) format. Joint interests, which at one time became an impetus for cooperation that started in 2001-2002 within the framework of the RIC, in particular:

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Many of them were transferred (of course, taking into account the peculiarities of Brazil) to the BRIC format.

In addition, in the RIC format, the technological chain of gradual alignment of both incentives, goals and principles of interaction (similar external and internal interests, non-blocking nature, non-targeting of third countries) and its organizational forms was actually "run-in". The BRIC has actually inherited from the RIC a step-by-step evolutionary scheme: from informal inter-ministerial meetings, through special forums of foreign ministers, to separate meetings of senior managers and gradual sectoral diversification of consultation mechanisms. A similar stimulating effect on the BRIC, to a certain extent, is also associated with the action of such an international format as "India - Brazil-South Africa".

...AND CONSTRAINTS

However, along with the points of similarity, there are also serious differences between the countries of the "four". Behind the favorable factors and prerequisites for cooperation in the BRIC, it is impossible not to see the existing objective limitations.

These include:

- geographical features that relate primarily to the remoteness of Brazil, which, among other things, objectively narrows the agenda of regional cooperation of the Quartet;

- non-critical, but, nevertheless, real cultural, civilizational and religious differences that can affect, including the formation of an atmosphere of necessary trust, and overcoming such differences requires long and complex work;

- features of selected models of internal structure, methods of managing society and the economy;

- existing as well as potential problems of bilateral relations, in particular, a number of unresolved issues of Sino-Indian relations;

- competition between BRIC countries for raw materials and sales markets;

- potential challenges associated with the possible growth of imbalances in the development of individual BRIC countries, including under the influence of the consequences of the global crisis, which is fraught with the loss of sufficient incentives for cooperation. A similar decline in mutual interests may also result from the stalling of certain joint initiatives or the possible loss of relevance of the latter;

- the implicit opposition of the West, whose role and zones of influence are objectively narrowing due to the economic growth of the BRIC countries, especially when it comes to the format of their interaction.

In other words, in the long run, cooperation within the BRIC will be formed, as it seems, under the multidirectional influence of the identified basic prerequisites on the one hand, and challenges on the other.

Its nuances and trends in the development of interaction can also be related to the specific assessments and approaches of each of the participants of the"four".

POSITIONS OF THE PARTIES: MAIN PROVISIONS

Joint statements of the BRIC countries and a number of other documents allow us to conclude that their leadership has a high degree of agreement on the key parameters of quadrilateral interaction, including its goals, principles and forms. Especially important is the solidary thesis that cooperation in the BRIC contributes to strengthening the international positions of each of the participating countries.

At the same time, there are specific features, some "shades" in the approach to cooperation in the BRIC of each of the states.

In alphabetical order, let's start with Brazil.

The leaders of this country spoke positively about the expediency of developing ties in the context of the BRIC even at an early stage of this process. This was stated in particular by the President of Brazil, who was invited to the events of the G8 meeting in 2006 in St. Petersburg.15

Later, statements by Brazilian officials and experts noted that cooperation between the BRIC countries can be quite viable, since, according to, for example, the President of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Brazil-Russia, Zh. According to Ramos, the "four" are powers that "have a lot in common, both geographically and macroeconomically" 16.

The most serious impetus for Brazil's active involvement in the formation of a partnership format seems to have been the global financial and economic crisis. It is no coincidence that Brazil hosted the first BRIC Finance Ministers ' meeting in Sao Paolo in November 200817.

Brazil actively supported the holding of the summit in Yekaterinburg, emphasizing its importance in creating and developing a basic "cooperation regime between Brazil, Russia, India and China in order to jointly find a way out of the global crisis" 18.

According to Brazilian experts, Brazil is interested in the problems of reforming the international financial system, including moving away from dollar dependence. At the same time, there is an understanding that while the chances of introducing alternative reserve currencies are "still minimal", national currencies should be actively used in trade operations. By the way, Brazil has introduced a similar form of settlement in its trade with Argentina, and this complex of issues is being actively discussed with China today.

In addition, Brazil attaches great importance to cooperation in the protection of the environment, including issues related to climate change, as well as in addressing economic, in particular energy issues, including "creating a global market for agrofuels to turn them into raw materials" and developing renewable energy sources. 19

In general, it seems that the concept of multilateral and bilateral cooperation in the BRIC fits quite well into the system of modern foreign policy and foreign economic priorities of Brazil, which are focused on increasing the international weight of this country, including the desire to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council, and on opening new markets outside the traditional Latin American region. Not by chance, in a long interview with the British Financial Times in

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In November 2009, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva expressed the opinion that"the BRIC countries have a very big future, they should focus on the positive aspects of cooperation, and success will inevitably come." "We will build a strong BRIC alliance, "the Brazilian leader said, recalling that the next summit of the Quartet will be held in April 2010 in his country's capital, Brasilia.20

The position of Russia, which de facto initiated cooperation within the BRIC, is that cooperation within the framework of the" four " meets its basic national interests, contributes to real diversification and balance of a multi-vector foreign policy.

This vision is reflected in the Concept of Russian Foreign Policy adopted in the summer of 2008 and in other important documents of the Russian Foreign Ministry. They note that Russia is interested in making cooperation among the BRIC countries a significant factor in multilateral diplomacy, making a significant contribution to building a new world order based on the principle of equality, and contributing to the formation of collective leadership among the world's leading states. 21 BRIC is seen as a "promising dialogue mechanism" with influential partners, which allows for "real-time cooperation between the BRIC countries and free exchange of views to bring together positions on the most pressing issues on the international agenda " 22. Russia, which hosted the first BRIC summit, officially emphasizes its intention to develop this format and "promote the establishment and further development of this institution of international cooperation on the basis of common interests, finding coordinated responses to challenges and threats to global and regional security and sustainable development"23.

Russia attaches great importance to the BRIC potential in the context of overcoming the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis, in particular, it is very actively promoting the idea of reforming the global financial architecture, including the gradual weakening of the dollar's monopoly at the expense of other reserve currencies. By the way, this activity, among other things, gives rise to a number of Western observers to position the Russian Federation as the country that, of all the BRIC countries, has the most complex relations with the West and the United States24. Some of them have recently gone further and, as is regularly the case with their assessments of the RIC format, are beginning to attribute to Russia the role of initiator of the transformation of the BRIC into an "anti-American political alliance" 25. Without going into the dubious nature of the argument, it should be noted that such an injection of an anti-Western image of Russian participation in the BRIC seems to be useful to take into account in the further development and practical implementation of the concept of the quadrilateral format.

If we talk about the views on the prospects for cooperation in the BRIC specifically in the Russian expert community, then, in comparison with the official position, they are less unambiguous. Along with generally optimistic assessments, there are opinions that in terms of the balance of centrifugal and centripetal factors in the BRIC, "serious differences" prevail between the four countries, which makes interaction problematic. At the same time, it is not so much the expediency of cooperation and the related interests of the Russian Federation that are questioned, as the real opportunities available for this 26.

The Indian leadership is also positive about cooperation in the BRIC format.

A special feature of New Delhi's approaches (as in the RIC format) is the emphasis, first of all, on the economic component ("trade, development, world finance") with a very measured and restrained mention of the geopolitical components of cooperation 27. It is characteristic that India has taken the initiative to hold a Forum of BRIC Entrepreneurs, which, according to Indian Prime Minister M. Singh, will discuss cooperation in energy, scientific and technical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and other similar areas 28.

Among the few interests of a "geopolitical nature" is the idea of "promoting the principles of multilateralism" and the thesis about the role of the BRIC in "fair reform of supranational management institutions, primarily the UN", which is understandable (given Delhi's bid for a seat among the permanent members of the Security Council). At the same time, the Prime Minister of India and other members of the Indian Cabinet spoke highly of the significance of the BRIC summit held in Yekaterinburg, calling it "a significant event in the development of cooperation".29

Indian leaders believe that the global economic downturn has made cooperation particularly relevant. In particular, Indian Foreign Ministry Secretary of State Sh. S. Menon stressed that in a crisis, "the four countries should step up cooperation by expressing their own views on creating a more just international economic order." 30

Such approaches are also shared by the majority of representatives of the expert community in India. Indian observers, in particular, draw attention to the opportunities for developing economic cooperation within the "four", while emphasizing the fact of a significant increase in bilateral trade in recent years between almost all BRIC countries. At the same time, it is noted that these countries can carry out long-term cooperation in such areas as finance, energy, services, technology, environmental protection, agriculture, food security and multilateral negotiations within the WTO, which contributes to the development of the economy of not only the BRIC countries, but also regional and global economic development.

In the context of the BRIC, Indian observers note India's "active position" in the RIC format, emphasizing that both formats are "conducive to maintaining India's commitment to its independent foreign economic policy" .31

In general, the highly diversified nature of India's participation in various international formats, including the RIC and BRIC, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) structures, the Asia-Europe Summits (ASEM), etc., indicates that India considers them as an important tool for broad foreign policy maneuvering, while seeking to achieve the same goal. no noticeable results.

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Speaking about China's approach, it should be noted that in this case we are talking about the clear economic leader of the BRIC, a country that in recent years, not excluding the period of the global crisis that began in 2008, has demonstrated a unique pace of development. Suffice it to say that China's GDP has increased approximately 16-fold since 1978, reaching more than 30 trillion yuan ($4.4 trillion)in 2008, according to Chinese statistics, 32 and reaching 33 trillion 535.3 billion in 2009. yuan ($4.91 trillion)33. Thus, while still ranked 3rd in the world in terms of this indicator, the PRC is almost on par with Japan, whose GDP in 2009 was $5.08 trillion 34. During the years of reforms, the PRC's foreign trade turnover increased more than 120 times - from $20.6 billion in 1978 to $2.56 trillion. in 2008, making it the world's second-largest trading power. In recent years, China has held the world championship in gold and foreign exchange reserves, which by mid-2009 exceeded $2 trillion 35. The country's success was also reflected in China's share of global gross domestic product, which increased from 4.4% in 2003 to 7.1% in 2008.36 In 2009. there was an increase in this indicator. This dynamic has significantly reduced the negative consequences of the global crisis for China.

This is the complex "economic baggage". It is accompanied, of course, by the growth of the PRC's political influence.

China actively supports BRIC cooperation processes, considering it, in particular, as "a chance and a historic moment to strengthen solidarity and cooperation and jointly protect the common interests of developing countries." The Chinese leadership supported and highly appreciated the fact of holding and the results of the summit in Yekaterinburg. Speaking at the event, Chinese President Hu Jintao outlined a vision of the main tasks that BRIC faces both in terms of interaction with the outside world and in terms of bilateral relations within the "four". This is a deepening of mutual trust, strengthening of cooperation mechanisms of the 4 countries, which are " significant forces for ensuring peace and stability in the region and in the world." It also includes promoting economic cooperation using opportunities for complementarity, facilitating humanitarian exchanges in order to form a social foundation for cooperation, and encouraging mutual learning from development experience.37

Like other BRIC partners, China attaches great importance to the role of the "four" in countering the international financial crisis and overcoming its consequences. The main ways Beijing sees cooperation in the priority restoration of its own economies, which would also contribute to the restoration of global economic growth, assistance in reforming the international financial system, as well as joint efforts to ensure security in the areas of food, energy resources and public health. At the same time, the Chinese leadership emphasizes the need to take into account the interests of "developing" countries, including the least developed countries, as an important priority.

Official Beijing focuses on the growing potential of the BRIC countries, on the "similarity of positions on many international issues" and their " political desire to expand cooperation and dialogue." The BRIC dialogue, as Chinese leaders emphasize, is transparent and open, "promoting trends in multilateralism, addressing global issues, and meeting the interests of the four countries and the entire international community." 38

Such approaches are almost completely shared in the expert community of the PRC. Researchers of this issue pay special attention to the fact that the process of growth of the BRIC countries and the gradual formation of interaction between them reflect natural changes in the global space, in particular, associated with the increasing role of a whole group of "new powers" led by the "four" countries, with a tendency to move towards a multipolar world39.

GOOD PROSPECTS

An analysis of the prospects of the BRIC format in the context of the prerequisites for dialogue and cooperation, existing challenges, as well as the specific approaches of individual countries allows us to draw certain conclusions.

The emergence and development of the BRIC concept, first as a term and then as a dialogue format, is natural, dictated by the growing role and importance of the four countries in the global economic and political arena, the development of trends in multilateralism and collective approaches to world affairs. In this sense, the BRIC format is a reflection of the changes taking place in the world, including the gradual formation of the beginnings of a polycentric world order.

The transition from stating the special dynamics of the development of the "four" countries to finding ways of interaction between them is connected not only with similar parameters of development and status of these countries, but also with such prerequisites as the proximity of their internal and external development priorities, a high level of bilateral relations.

It is characteristic that the BRIC countries consider it expedient to overcome the consequences of the global financial and economic crisis through joint efforts.

Objectively, there are differences and divergences between the BRIC countries. But, as the development of events shows, they generally do not hinder the search for ways of cooperation, although they need targeted monitoring.

Analysis of the approaches of individual members of the "four" confirms a fairly high similarity of their starting positions. Virtually every BRIC country is interested in developing this dialogue format, sees it as a tool for overall strengthening its economic positions and international authority, attaches great importance to it in overcoming the consequences of the global economic crisis, and sees good prospects for expanding bilateral relations within the Quartet.

The above can be fully attributed to Russia. The development of relations in the BRIC format is highly in line with the interests of its multi-vector foreign policy. The quadrilateral partnership dialogue not only strengthens the Russian Federation's voice on the world stage, but also contributes to the deepening and expansion of its ties with the most important Asian and Latin American partners.

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1 As a designation for the aggregate economies of four dynamically developing countries, the concept of BRIC first appeared in the Notes on the Global Economy published by the bank, in the article "Building a Better Global Economy. BRICK". Building Better Global Economic BRICs // Goldman Sachs Global Economics Paper, No: 66, November, 2001- http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/building-better-doc.pdf

2 Global Economics Paper, No. 99: Dreaming with BRICs: The Path to 2050. October, 2003 - http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/brics-dream.html

3 BRICs Lead the Global Recovery. BRICs Monthly. Issue No: 09/05.May 29, 2009. The BRICs as Drivers of Global Consumption. BRICs Monthly.Issue No: 09/07. August 6, 2009 - http://www2.gold-mansachs.com/ideas/brics/index.html; Global Portfolio Strategy. The BRICs Nifty 50: The EM & DM winners. November, 4, 2009 - http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/nifty-50-doc.pdf

4 Global Economics Paper No. 134: How Solid are the BRICs? December, 2005 - http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/how-solid.html

Kramarenko A.M. 5 Russia and the formation of a dialogue mechanism in the BRIC format - http://www.ln.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/76bbf733e3936d4543256999005bcbb7/e85d858047040ea8c3 257540003bf6db?OpenDocument

6 Joint Communique on the meeting of the Foreign Ministers of China, Russia, India and Brazil - http://ru.china-embassy.org/rus/xwdt/t455696.htm

7 Meeting of President Dmitry Medvedev, President of the People's Republic of China Hu Jintao, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh and President of Brazil Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva on July 9, 2008. Japan, Hokkaido - http://archive.kremlin.ru/text/news/2008/07/203878.shtml

8 Joint Statement of the BRIC leaders. June 16, 2009, Yekaterinburg - http://archive.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2009/06/2179 32.shtml

9 Communique on the results of the BRIC Finance Ministers ' Meeting on 13 March 2009, Horsham, United Kingdom. 16.03.2009 http://www.minfin.ru/ru/official/index.php?id4=7172 BRIC will defend the parity of developing and developed countries in the IMF and WB. (Comments by A. L. Kudrin to news agencies at the annual session of the IMF and the World Bank. Стамбул, 06.10.2009) - http://www1.minfin.ru/ru/press/speech/printable.php?id4=8236

10 Brazil, Russia, India and China will work together to fight international cartels // Rossiyskaya gazeta. 2.09.2009 - http://www.rg.ru/2009/09/02/bric.html

11 See, for example, the BRIC Joint Statement on Global Food Security. 16.06.2009, Yekaterinburg - http://archive.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2009/06/217933.shtml

12 Official website of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation - http://www.mcx.ru/news/news/show/3864.78.htm.

13 Official website of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation. Information on the socio-economic situation in Russia-2010 January. Key economic and social indicators - http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/B10_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d01/1-0.htm

14 Official website of the Brazilian Government. Brazil's GDP down 0,2% in 2009, demonstrating resilience amidst global economic crisis. 12.03.2010 - http://www.brasil.gov.br/news/history/2010/03/11/brazils-gdp-down-0-2-in-2009-demonstrati ng-resilience-amidst-global-economic-crisis

15 Interview of Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva to the Interfax news agency - http://www.civilg8.ru/6160.php

16 See: BRIC and SCO Summits: Reinventing the Wheel (Online Journal, USA), 25.06.2009 - http://www.inosmi.ru/world/20090625/250155.html

17 Russia, China, Brazil and India intend to coordinate anti-crisis measures. Sao Paulo. November 9th. INTERFAX-AFI - http://news.mail.ru/politics/2155593/

18 The Deputy Foreign Minister of Brazil noted that the BRIC countries will cooperate in the fight against the crisis / / People's Daily online, 13.06. 2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/31520/6677828.html

19 See: BRIC to hold debate on local currency use and crisis / / DCI, Brazil, 16.06.2009 - http://www.inosmi.ru/world/20090615/249860.html

Barber Lionel, 20 editor of the Financial Times, and Wheatley Jonathan, Brazil correspondent. Interview transcript: President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. The Financial Times, November 8, 2009 - http://www.ft.eom/cms/s/e0357680-cbbf-11de-924d-00144feabdc09

21 Concept of Foreign policy of the Russian Federation. July 12, 2008 - http://archive.kremlin.ru/text/docs/2008/07/204108.shtml.

22 Responses of the Acting official representative of the Russian Foreign Ministry, B. Malakhov to journalists ' questions. 12.05.2008 - http://www.mid.ru/ns-rasia.nsf/5be75de6dd98a29cc325744700409197/432569d80021985fc3 257447002ac875?OpenDocument

23 Information Bulletin of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation - http://www.ln.mid.ru/bl.nsf/plnv/A9FD0A678B83B36EC3257455004750DF/$FILE/26.05.20 08.doc

24 See, for example: Nikonov V. Brik: The Self-fulfilling Prophecy - http://www.izvestia.ru/comment/article3123407 Russia leads the BRIC countries in search of a common idea / / The Times, 18.06.2009 - http://www.inosmi.ru/world/20090618/249946.html

25 See for example: Tony Halpin in Yekaterinburg. Brazil, Russia, India and China form bloc to challenge US dominance // The Times, June 17, 2009 - http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/us_and_ americas/article6514737.ece; Carl Mortished. Russia shows its political clout by hosting Brie summit. The Times, May 16, 2008 - http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/markets/russia/article3941462.ece

26 Yasin: BRIC countries are very different for creating an international organization / / People's Daily Online, 10.06.2009 - http://russian.people.com.en/31519/6675384.html

27 On the bilateral meeting of External Affairs Minister in New York, Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, 24 September 2007. Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi - http://meaindia.nic.in/secframe.php?sec=ev

28 PM's opening remarks at the Full Format (Plenary) Session at the first BRIC Summit, June 16, 2009, Yekaterinburg, Russia - http://meaindia.nic.in/speech/2009/06/16ss01.htm

29 Departure Statement by the PM M. Singh on his visit to Russia. June 15, 2009 New Delhi. Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi - http://meaindia.nic.in/speech/2009/06/15ss01.htm

30 Indian officials and scientists highly appreciate the strengthening of cooperation between the BRIC countries / / People's Daily online, 13.06.2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/31520/6677827.html

31 Ibid.

32 Report of Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council of the People's Republic of China on the results of the work of the Government of the People's Republic of China in 2008 at the 2nd session of the National People's Congress of the 11th convocation. 05.03.2008 - www.russian.xinhuanet.com/russian/2009-03/05/content_830402.htm

33 National Economy: Recovery and Posing in the Good Direction in 2009. National Bureau of Statistics of China. Ma Jiantang, Commissioner, National Bureau of Statistics of China, January 21, 2010 - http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/newsandcomingevents/t20100121_402615502.htm

34 According to preliminary official data (15.02.2010), Japan's GDP in 2009 was 474.924 trillion yen ($5.0849 trillion). Website of the Cabinet of Ministers of Japan-Quarterly Estimates of GDP (Reference Year = 2000. Tables of GDP and its components (1980: I-2009: IV). Annual Nominal GDP (calendar year) - http://www.esri.cao.go.jp/jp/sna/qe094/gaku-mcy0941.csv; http://www.cnbc.com/id/35399586; долларовый эквивалент см.: Thomson Reuters, 15.02.2010 http://www.cnbc.com/id/35399586/

35 Website of the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China - http://english.mofcom.gov.cn/aarticle/newsrelease/commonnews/200902/20090206033503.ht ml; What are China's $ 2 trillion foreign exchange reserves? People's Daily Online, 16.07.2009 - http://russian. people.com.cn/31518/6702359.html

36 Calculations based on IMF Statistics: World Economic Outlook Database, Oct. 2009,18. 12. 2009 -http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2003&ey=2008 &scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=&br=1&c=001&s=NGDPD&grp=1&a=1&pr. x=39&pr. y=7; China - http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2003&ey=2011 &scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=924&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr.x=29&pr.y =10

37 Speech of President Hu Jintao at the BRIC Leaders ' Meeting / / People's Daily Online. 17.06.2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/31519/6680077.html

38 China will take an active part in the BRIC Leaders ' Summit / / People's Daily Online.20.05.2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/31521/6661359.html Dialogue, cooperation and the BRIC Contribution/ / People's Daily Online. 15.06.2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/95181/6678764.html

39 New Powers are becoming an important force stimulating the overall development of the world / / People's Daily Online. 29.06.2009 - http://russian.people.com.cn/95181/6688924.html


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