Libmonster ID: UK-1467
Author(s) of the publication: E. A. BORISOVA

2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS IN THE ENERGY SECTOR

E. A. BORISOVA

Candidate of Historical Sciences

Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: China, energy, 12th five-year plan, environmental protection, resources, renewable energy sources

China faces a huge number of internal and external challenges, one way or another related to its economic growth. One of the most urgent tasks of this country is the development of safer, more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy.

External challenges in the energy sector include: 1) increased international competition for energy resources; 2) persistent or increasing volatility in energy markets; 3) climate change.

Internal calls: 1) the difficult situation in the field of energy security: China is highly dependent on foreign oil; 2) increasing pressure on the environmental environment, including air, land and water resources; 3) lagging energy infrastructure, which remains large but does not meet modern requirements 1.

EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL FACTORS

One of the main challenges for China today is the difficult environmental situation in most Chinese cities and towns. As you know, 16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world are located in China. The reason for this was accelerated industrialization. The country's economic growth, which has averaged about 10% of annual GDP growth over the past decade, has been driven by the environment and public health. In particular, life expectancy in the north of China has decreased by 5.5 years due to air pollution, water problems (pollution and scarcity), and soil pollution and erosion.2 The depressing state of the environment leads, among other things, to increasing social discontent.

The energy sector has played a significant role in the deterioration of the country's environmental situation. It is also, to a certain extent, responsible for climate change on the planet. One-third of the annual greenhouse gas emissions are generated by the Chinese industry, primarily energy, as coal remains the main energy resource in the country.

The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in China is of great importance, and the state is trying to reduce this interdependence. If the goal of reducing energy consumption had not been set since the late 1970s, the country would now consume three times as much as it currently consumes in order to ensure its economic growth.3

The trend towards reducing the energy intensity of the economy has remained unchanged for several decades, with the exception of the period 2002-2005, when the intensity of energy consumption increased markedly. To stop the unexpected growth of this indicator, the government, within the framework of the 11th five-year plan (2006-2010), launched a national program for the development of energy conservation, aimed primarily at:-


The publication was prepared within the framework of the RGNF-supported research project N 15 - 37 - 11129 (Research of socio-cultural, environmental and technological aspects of the prospects for energy export from Russia).

page 26

For example, large companies that consume approximately one-third of the energy in China. The new plan focuses on medium-sized enterprises. In general, as will be shown below, the Chinese leadership is quite successfully coping with this task. Energy consumption continues to grow, but on a controlled scale.

The list of problems of the energy industry is not limited to the growth of energy needs. Another problem is the rather high dependence of the Chinese energy sector on external suppliers. About 83% of China's energy sector is currently based on coal and oil. At the same time, 59% of the oil demand is provided by importation4. The main oil suppliers to China in 2014 were: Saudi Arabia (16%), Angola (13%), Russia (11%) and Oman (10%) 5.

Currently, China has signed contracts for oil and gas supplies with a number of countries in Africa, the Persian Gulf, Central Asia, Russia, and Australia. Some of the oil and gas resources are purchased on the spot market. Iran is also ready to supply gas to the Chinese market after the lifting of sanctions.

From the point of view of preserving our own natural resources, the increase in imports is justified. However, this also creates new risks. The situation in the regions that supply energy resources to China is often unstable, which naturally causes concern for the Chinese leadership. Beijing is also concerned that the US Navy controls the sea routes from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea that carry oil and gas imports to China. And if Sino-American relations suddenly escalate, the United States can use its military power to destroy oil carriers.

China 6. The situation in the Strait of Malacca, where pirates operate, also adds instability.

All this forces China, on the one hand, to look for new suppliers of fossil fuels, and on the other - to actively develop domestic, both traditional and new environmentally friendly renewable energy sources.

STATE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

In China, the country's development is taking place in accordance with five-year plans. Today, economic development is determined by the 12th five-year plan (2011-2015). Everything related to energy issues is usually allocated in a special section in five-year plans. The energy part of the 12th plan is based mainly on the goals announced in the 11th five-year plan, which can be described in one word-energy efficiency.

At the same time, the Chinese government issues additional five-year energy development plans that specify and complement the tasks set in the main five-year plan.

The current five-year Energy Development Plan was published only on January 1, 2013. It focuses on the implementation of energy-saving programs, on increasing the level of use of traditional environmentally friendly energy resources, by which Chinese experts mean natural gas, hydropower and nuclear energy, as well as on increasing the share of renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind and bioenergy.

If we take a broader time frame, then by 2020

China plans to increase the share of inexhaustible energy sources to 15% and reduce the carbon intensity of the economy by 40-45% compared to the level of 2005.

In this regard, in the structure of energy consumption within the framework of the 12th five-year plan, the shares of different types of energy are being transformed: the share of coal is gradually decreasing, while the share of natural gas and non-traditional renewable energy sources is significantly increasing.

The Plan also pays considerable attention to the construction of energy bases and corridors and the promotion of optimal allocation of energy resources.

Total investment in the energy sector is expected to reach 5.3 trillion yuan ($830 billion). Of these, 2.75 trillion will be spent on the construction of power plants for generating energy, and 2.55 trillion will be invested in power grids.7

PLANNED ENERGY DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS FOR THE 12TH FIVE-YEAR PLAN*

- Total energy consumption by 2015 should be limited to 4 billion tons of conventional fuel (t. u. t.);

- total electricity consumption in 2015 should not exceed 6.15 trillion kWh;

- energy consumption per unit of GDP should be reduced by 16% by 2015 compared to the 2010 level.;

- carbon dioxide emissions should be reduced by 17%;

- overall, energy efficiency will be increased by 38%.%;


* At the time of writing, the results of the 12th five-year plan had not yet been finalized. Therefore, the planned indicators are presented and analyzed below.

page 27

Table

Development of renewable energy sources. Installed capacity growth indicators in the Chinese electric power industry

 

2010, GW

2014, GW

% to 2013

Planned figures for 2015, GW

Electric power generation:

970

1360

8,7

1490

including:

 

 

 

 

1. Heat generation

686,4

915,7

5,9

1106

2. Hydroelectric power industry

220

301,8

7,9

290

3. NUCLEAR POWER plants

10,8

19,8

36,1

40

4. Wind Power

31

95,8

25,6

100

5. Solar energy

0,86

26,5

67

21



Источник: 12th Five Year Plan - Energy Development Plan goals -http://iepd.iipnetwork.org/policy/energy-development-plan-12th-five-year-plan.

- primary energy production will reach 4.30 billion t. u. t. in 2015, including 3.66 billion t.u.t. for domestic consumption.;

- the share of environmentally friendly energy resources in the structure of consumption by 2015 will be increased to 11.4%, and taking into account natural gas-by another 7.5%;

- the plan also provides for the construction of national energy bases. The five main areas designated for these bases (Shanxi Province, Ordos (Inner Mongolia), eastern Inner Mongolia, Southwest China, Xinjiang) are expected to produce a total of 2.66 billion tons of cu. t., representing more than 70% of the country's total capacity.

For comparison, we present the achieved indicators of the 11th five-year Plan:

- primary energy production in China in 2010 was 2.97 billion cu. t., ranking 1st in the world in this indicator for 5 consecutive years;

- The installed capacity of electric generating equipment reached 970 million kW in 2010. Nuclear power facilities under construction in China accounted for more than 40% of the world's total in 2010.;

- energy consumption per unit of GDP decreased by 19.1%8.

The 12th Plan, compared to the 11th five-year Plan, sets a new goal in the energy sector - reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by 10% 9.

ACHIEVING YOUR GOALS

Total energy consumption in 2014 amounted to 4.26 billion tons of fuel equivalent (an increase of 2.2%). The share of coal in the structure of energy consumption has decreased to 66%. The 2.9% reduction in coal consumption was accompanied by an increase in oil consumption (by 5.9%) and natural gas consumption (by 8.6%). Electricity consumption increased by 3.8%. As a result, "clean energy" (hydroelectric power plants, nuclear power plants, renewable energy sources and natural gas) accounted for 16.9% of China's energy consumption in 2014. Total energy consumption per unit of GDP declined by 4.8% , the best rate in the last 10 years.

The emphasis on the development of renewable energy sources (RES) led to the fact that in 2013, despite the global decline in investment activity in this area, China became the leader in terms of investment in "green" energy. In 2013, they were estimated at $56.3 billion, which is 61% of the total investment in developing countries. And this is more than the combined investment of European countries 11. Moreover, for the first time in history, these investments exceeded China's investment in fuel energy 12.

Data from 2013 show that 24% of the world's renewable energy capacity was generated in China. At the same time, the main load fell on hydroelectric power (260 GW).

The development of renewable energy in China is proceeding at a pace in some cases even higher than planned. Today, for example, we can already talk about higher rates of energy production due to solar panels than was planned. The installed capacity of solar installations connected to the grid in 2014 was 26.52 million kW, an increase of 67% (!) compared to the previous year13. Recall that, according to the 12th five-year Plan, solar generation indicators by 2015 were supposed to reach only 21 million kW.

Plans for generating other types of electricity also seem likely to keep up with the targets set by the end of 2015. An exception can be made in the nuclear power industry, whose capacity, although increased by 36% in 2014, is 2 times less than planned for 2015. However, after the Fukushima tragedy, plans for the development of nuclear energy were repeatedly adjusted. At the same time, direct energy production at nuclear power plants increased by 19% in 2014.

According to the official ci-

page 28

According to Thai statistics (see Table), by the end of 2014, the total installed power generation capacity was 1,360 million kW, which is 8.7% more than in 2013. Including-the installed capacity of heat generation was 915.69 million kW, an increase of 5.9%; the installed capacity of hydropower was 301.83 million kW (up 7.9%); the installed capacity of wind turbines connected to the power grid was 95.810 million kW. kW, which is 25.6% higher compared to the previous year14.

It should be noted that the growth rates of hydro and solar power capacities achieved in 2014 were higher than planned and even exceeded the initially expected figures for 2015.

According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), by 2050, 80% of Chinese energy can be converted to renewable energy sources if energy efficiency development programs are not slowed down. As a result, carbon emissions from energy production could be 90% lower by 2050 than they currently are, without compromising the stability of the electricity grid or slowing economic growth, according to the WWF 15 report.

Perhaps this forecast is too optimistic, but its appearance is significant in itself: the Chinese scale of renewable energy implementation is striking to many.

The coal industry is undergoing significant changes. First, China is tightening its requirements for coal mines. In the fall of 2013, the Chinese government ordered the closure of coal mines that produce less than 90 thousand tons of fuel per year, and licenses for opening new production facilities will be issued only if the planned production volume exceeds 300 thousand tons. Today, about 20% of coal comes from technologically backward enterprises in the country, which will eventually be closed.

In addition, the State Council of China has also set the task of reducing the tax burden on the coal industry and removing unfair levies from regional authorities. It also banned the import of low-quality coal with a high content of ash and sulfur. The use of low-quality coal is seen as the main cause of air pollution in China's northern regions, including Beijing and neighboring Tianjin. In 2012, China imported $ 289 million. tons of coal, of which 22% was of poor quality. Despite being the world's largest coal producer, China has been importing more coal than it has exported since 2009. In 2013, imports reached a record level of 320 million tons. The main countries that supply coal to China are the United States, Indonesia, and Australia .16

In 2014, there were notable changes in the coal sector: China's coal production declined by 2.5% for the first time in many years. Coal imports also declined, while coal consumption (also for the first time) decreased by 2.9% 17.

Oil and gas industry. In 2014, China experienced a slowdown in industrial growth. This was accompanied by a modest increase in domestic fuel production and a significant increase in imports of oil (an increase of 9.2%) and natural gas (13%). China became a net importer of oil for the first time in 1993, and in 2009, for the first time, it imported more oil than it produced from its own fields.

In 2010, the volume of imported oil for the first time exceeded 239 million tons 18. In 2010, the country's dependence on external supplies of natural gas was 15%, and oil-exceeded 55%, although the PRC also supplies a small amount of oil to Japan 19. Scientists believe that the degree of dependence of China on oil imports in 2020 will be 65In 2030, it may approach 75%20. For national security reasons, the Government decided to create several oil storage facilities with a capacity of 67 million tons. In addition to these facilities, commercial storage facilities with a capacity of more than 40 million tons of oil are already operating in the country.

The share of oil in the country's energy consumption in 2013 was 18.4%; its domestic production increases by 2% every year.

Natural gas production in China has been growing by 15% annually over the past 10 years, i.e. more dynamically than oil production. At the same time, China's gas industry is still at the initial stage of its development.

According to Chinese sources, in 2009 the share of natural gas in the country's energy consumption structure was around 4%. By 2013, it had increased to 5.8%. It seems that the targets set for 2015 - at least 8% of the energy consumption structure-will not be met, unless the shale revolution takes place in China, which is actively being prepared.

Today, China focuses on developing shale gas production. CNPC estimates China's shale gas resources at 36.81 trillion m3 (recoverable resources below 2000 m are 10.87 trillion m3, and proven reserves are estimated at 102.3 billion m3)21. The Ministry of Land and Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China expects 6.5 billion m3 to be produced in 2015. m3 of this fuel, while in 2013 it was possible to obtain 200 million m3 22. By 2020, China pla-

page 29

It plans to increase shale gas production to 30 billion rubles. m3 per year. Thus, the share of shale fuel in the total volume of natural gas produced in the country will grow from 1 to 15% 23.

Currently, shale gas in China is extracted from 400 wells. It is planned that their number will increase by several hundred annually. However, these plans may be hindered by the country's current shortage of water resources, as existing extraction technologies involve the use and chemical contamination of huge volumes of water.

FIVE-YEAR PLAN PRIORITIES

The following priorities were identified in the coal industry. First, the need to develop safe and efficient coal mines and the development of large coal mining enterprises was voiced, which implies the merger and reorganization of coal mining enterprises.24 The tasks also include the development of large and medium-sized coal-fired thermal power plants in large and medium-sized cities and industrial parks, and the development of large coal-fired power plants near coal mines.25 The regions identified for the development and construction of new coal bases are northern Shanxi Province, Huanglong County, Shandong, eastern Inner Mongolia, eastern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, northern, eastern and central Shanxi Province, Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces, and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. In general, the share of coal in the country's energy sector, according to the plans, should gradually decrease. Thus, at the end of 2014, the production of this fuel decreased by 2.4% compared to 2013, amounting to 2.636 billion tons of fuel equivalent, although if compared with the data of 2010, an increase of 11% is obvious 26.

The oil and gas industry was tasked, in particular, to conduct research on the extraction of products of coal processing-fuel gas and liquid fuel, including their joint production; to intensify the exploration and development of oil and gas resources, to stabilize domestic oil production and promote rapid growth in gas production, as well as to develop and use unconventional oil and gas resources, such as coal seam gas (mine methane) and shale gas 27. According to the plan, the share of natural gas in the balance of energy consumption should increase and reach 8-8.3% in 2015.

For these purposes, 5 major oil and gas producing regions have been identified: the Tarim and Dzungarian basins, the Liaodong and Ordos basins, the Bohai Bay basin, and the Sichuan basin. The goal is also to accelerate the exploration and development of offshore and deep-sea oil and gas fields and increase the production and use of coal gas in areas where coal mines are located.

In the hydropower sector, emphasis is placed on the construction of large hydroelectric power plants in southwestern China, the development of small and medium-sized water and energy resources that take into account local conditions, as well as on the development and construction of pumped storage power plants (PSPPs). The rivers identified for the largest hydroelectric power stations are the Jing River (upper reaches of the Yangtze), Yalongjiang (in Sichuan Province in southern China) and the Daduhe River (west of Sichuan Province, which flows into Minjiang, which in turn is a tributary of the Yangtze). The total installed capacity of new hydropower projects is 120 million kw28. In general, the hydropower capacity should increase to 284 million kW, and the capacity of the PSPP will exceed 41 million kw29.

The Plan also calls for the need to actively develop nuclear power on the east coast and in some areas of central China on a safe and efficient basis. The total capacity of the nuclear power industry was expected to reach 40 million kW by 2015.

Plans have been developed for the wind industry to build 6 large onshore bases, one coastal base and one offshore base with an additional installed capacity of $ 100 million. kW.

The focus on solar energy development is in areas such as Tibet, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Yunnan. The total installed capacity of solar power stations should be more than 20 million kw30.

The Plan also mentions the need to actively develop energy based on biofuels, geothermal energy and use other new energy sources.

The Plan pays special attention to the transportation of energy resources. The construction of strategic pipelines was planned in the north-western, north-eastern, and south-western regions of China, and the need to develop sea transportation of oil and gas and improve the internal pipeline network was mentioned. As planned, the following projects were completed in 5 years: the 2nd phase of the China-Kazakhstan oil pipeline, the China-Myanmar oil and gas pipeline (internal segment), and the 2nd phase of the Central Asian gas pipeline. The total length of oil and gas pipelines reaches about 150 thousand km.

The plan provides for unified gas pipeline planning-

page 30

natural gas, coal seam gas, and gas obtained from coal processing are balanced, as well as the creation of a common gas supply system.

It is also said that it is necessary to accelerate the construction of a modern power transmission system, expand the possibilities of transmitting energy in the West-East direction, develop modern highly efficient long-distance power transmission technologies to meet the needs of a large-scale interregional power grid and connect new generating capacities to the networks. The construction of 330 kV transmission lines with a total length of 200 thousand km31 should be completed.

NEW PLAN

At the end of 2014, some details of the new 13th five-year Plan (2016-2020) became known. The plan involves increasing oil and gas production on the shelf and increasing the targets of renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energy. According to the new plan, China should increase oil and gas production, primarily on the shelves in the East China Sea and in the northern part of the South China Sea.

According to the plan, the country, as in the previous five-year plan, will focus on increasing energy production, improving the structure of energy supply and accelerating the development of renewable energy sources.

The development of five production power bases (Shanxi Province, Ordos Basin, eastern Inner Mongolia, Southwestern China and XUAR) announced in the 12th five-year Plan has been postponed to the end of 2020.

China will also create a nuclear power development belt in Eastern China. The capacity of nuclear power plants will reach 58 million kW in 2020. Currently, the capacity of nuclear power plants under construction in China is 30 million kW, although the implementation of these projects is slightly behind schedule.

Wind power capacity is expected to reach 200 million kW by 2020. This is 2 times more than the level of the 12th five-year plan. And the capacity of solar energy should increase to 100 million kW, which is 5 times higher than the previous plan.

It is assumed that the price of wind energy in power grids will be equal to the price of thermal energy by 2020, and the price of solar energy will be equal to the retail price of electricity. This means that the price of wind energy will be reduced from the current 0.6 yuan ($0.1) per kWh to 0.4 yuan per kWh, and the price of solar energy will be reduced from the current 0.9 yuan to 0.6 yuan per kWh.32

ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS IN THE ENERGY SECTOR

The 12th Five-Year Plan pays much more attention to environmental issues than in the previous one. It is based on concerns about global climate change and the increased number of anomalous natural phenomena. The goals are to reduce the intensity of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by improving overall energy efficiency and limiting the growth of industries with high energy consumption.

The structure of energy consumption, according to the Plan, is being revised in favor of increasing the use of non-fossil energy resources, in addition, greenhouse gas emissions should also be reduced by increasing the carbon-sequestering forest cover to 12.5 million hectares. China is focused on creating and improving a system for statistical monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a market for trading CO2 quotas. The Chinese government has also set the task of developing standards for the development of low-carbon production33.

The plan provides for the establishment of new environmental standards for both vehicle emissions and industrial enterprises. These standards also apply to wastewater treatment and solid waste treatment. There is a strong emphasis on reuse and recycling.

A total of 5 trillion yuan (more than $800 billion) has been allocated for environmental protection in the 12th five-year plan, with 2015 spending almost two and a half times higher than in 2011.34 These funds will affect sectors such as information technology, clean energy development, research and innovation. Thanks to such large-scale investments, the attitude towards China as a global polluter of the planet is gradually shifting towards the idea of it as the leading investor of the so-called green economy in the world.

In December 2013, a new large-scale plan to improve air quality in Chinese cities was announced. An additional 1.75 trillion yuan (almost $300 billion)was allocated for the implementation of this program alone in 2014-2017.35

The 12th Five-Year Plan pays special attention to the topic of conservation and strict control over the use of natural resources. For de-

page 31

The need to create a system of reserves is voiced for the development of sufficient mineral resources. The land and water resources management system should also be improved. In order to protect water resources, special attention is paid to the development of a society focused on water conservation, improving the efficiency of water use, including through the development of the paid segment, and the construction of desalination plants. Groundwater exploitation is strictly restricted 36. However, despite the announced plans, China has not yet made significant progress in protecting water resources. Significantly greater efforts are made to clean the air.

Monitoring of air quality in 161 cities in 2014 showed that only 15 of them (9.9%) met international standards. The figures are frightening, despite the fact that air purification programs are in an active phase: harmful industries are gradually being closed, some of them are being moved abroad, as well as energy-and water-intensive industries. New cleaning systems are being introduced at existing plants, including thermal power plants, in accordance with higher national standards, and the market for electric vehicles and hybrids is growing at an accelerated pace. In addition, more than 6 million hectares of forests were planted in 2014. By the end of 2014, there were 2,729 nature reserves, including 428 national parks.

Thus, it can be stated that China has closely addressed the problem of environmental security, linking economic and, above all, energy development programs with it.


1 CN-17: Energy Development Plan of the 12th Five Year Plan. Industrial Efficiency Policy Database http://iepd.iipnetwork.org/policy/energy-development-plan-12th-five-year-plan

Beina Xu. 2 2014. China's Environmental Crisis. April 25 - http://www.cfr.org/china/chinas-environmental-crisis/pi2608

3 Energy and climate goals of China's 12th five-year plan. 2011, March. Pew center on global climate change -http://www.c2es.org/docUploads/energy-climate-goals-china-twelfth-five-year-plan.pdf

4 BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2015.

Starinskaya 5 Russian oil fills China // Vedomosti, 24.06.2015.

Strecker Downs E. 6 2000. Implications of China's Energy Security Activities // China's Quest for Energy Security, Santa Monica, Rand. P. 43 - 52.

7 China's 12th five-year plan: Energy, April 2011. KPMG China.

8 China-briefing. 2013 - http://www.china-briefing.com/news/2013/02/06/china-releases-12th-five-year-plan-for-energ y-development.html#sthash.F5pDkJDS.dpuf

9 China's 12th five-year plan: Overview. March 2011. KPMG China.

10 Statistical Communique of the People's Republic of China on the 2014 National Economic and Social Development. National Bureau of Statistics of China. 26.02.2015 -http://www.stats.gov.cn/english/PressRelease/201502/t20150228_687439.html Salitsky A., Chesnokova S., Shakhmatov A. 2015. China: a powerful start to the environmental revolution -http://www.perspektivy.infooykumena/azia/kitaj_moshhnyj start_ekologicheskoj_revolucii_2015-03 - 23.htm

11 Renewables get a China push // China Daily. 05.06.2014.

12 Renewables Global Status Report. 2014. REN 21. P. 17.

13 Statistical Communique...

14 Ibidem.

15 Renewables can support China's 80 pet power consumption by 2050 // Xinhua. February 20, 2014.

Chen Yang. 16 China tightens rules for coal industry // Global Times. November 28, 2013 - http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/828512.shtml#.UphzaaBskds

Salitsky A., Chesnokova S., Shakhmatov A. 17 Decree. op.

Pan Changwei. 18 Structure of consumption of primary fuel and energy resources in China and the prospect of cooperation of Russia and China in the gas industry // International conference, AES-2010, "Energy cooperation in Asia: after the crisis?". Irkutsk, 2010.

19 oil and gas Development people's Republic of China // Drilling and oil. January 2015.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 China decided to increase shale gas production by 150 times // Lenta.ru. 18.09.2014 - http://lenta.ru/news/2014/09/18/chinashalegas/.

23 China to increase shale gas production by 23 times // Lenta.ru. 12.02.2015 - http://lenta.ru/news/2015/02/12/chinagas/

24 China's twelfth five year plan (2011 - 2015) -http://www.cbichina.org.cn/cbichina/upload/fckeditor/Full%20Translation%20of%20the%20 12th%20Five-Year%20Plan.pdf. Chapter 11.

25 Ibidem.

26 BP Statistical Review of World Energy...

27 Ibidem.

28 Ibid.

29 China's 12th five-year plan: Energy. April 2011...

30 Ibidem; CN-17: Energy Development Plan of the 12th Five Year Plan...

31 China's twelfth five year plan (2011 - 2015)... Chapter 11.

32 Wind, solar power targets raised, while oil exploration expanded in offshore regions // China Daily, 09.10.2014.

33 China's twelfth five year plan (2011 - 2015)... Chapter 11.

Salitsky A., Chesnokova S., Shakhmatov A. 34 Decree. op.

35 Там же; China faces $176 bn bill to clean up air pollution - http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/dec/20/china-bill-clean-air-pollution. December 20, 2013.

36 China's twelfth five year plan (2011 - 2015)... Chapter 22.

37 Statistical Communique...


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Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of affiliates, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. Once you register, you have more than 100 tools at your disposal to build your own author collection. It's free: it was, it is, and it always will be.

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