Libmonster ID: UK-1409

E. N. KORENDYASOV

PhD in Economics Institute of Africa, Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: Russia-Africa, African arms market, military-technical cooperation, national armies

The leaders of Rosoboronexport, Russia's only state intermediary for the export / import of the entire range of military and dual-use end products, technologies and services, say: "Russia is seriously and permanently returning to the African arms and military equipment market."1. What are the prospects for achieving this goal?

Military-technical cooperation (MTC) played a leading role in creating favorable and trusting conditions for the development of Soviet-African relations. Solid fundamental prerequisites were created for the long-term development of the military-technical complex.

Interesting data on the volume of military supplies to Africa in the Soviet years are provided by the French researcher J. L. Servin (see Table 1).

They belong to the" golden decade " of Russian-African relations and deserve attention, although they are indisputable. According to these data, the USSR supplied weapons and military equipment (IWT) to 21 countries, and its share in the total volume of arms imports by African countries in the period from 1967 to 1976 reached 40%.

MILITARY COOPERATION

The USSR was interpreted in Western literature and journalism as a manifestation of the desire of the Soviet leadership to establish communist regimes, to undermine the position of the Western bloc on the continent and on a global scale. Military-strategic and ideological rivalry, undoubtedly, left an imprint on the African policy of the USSR and its allies, as, indeed, the countries of the Western bloc. But it would be a simplification to assume that only these approaches determined the content and dynamics of military-technical cooperation.

First, it is a mistake to ignore the positions of African countries and their leaders on this issue. Outstanding

Table 1

Soviet supplies of weapons and military equipment to African countries in 1967-1976 ($ million, current prices)

A country

Import of weapons from the USSR

Total arms imports by country

Share of the USSR in the total volume of arms imports by a given country (%)

Africa

2015

5131

40

Algeria

315

445

70,8

Angola

190

315

60,3

Benin

1

10

10

Republic of the Congo

10

20

50

Ethiopia

190

Equatorial Guinea

5

5

100

Guinea

50

55

90.1

Guinea-Bissau

5

5

100

Libya

1005

1835

54,8

Madagascar

1

5

20

Мали

25

25

100

Morocco

10

350

2,9

Mozambique

15

20

75

Nigeria

70

221

31,7

Uganda

65

81

35,9

CAR

1

5

20

Somalia

181

185

97,8

Sudan

65

100

65

Tanzania

30

125

24

Chad

5

10

50

Zambia

10

81

12.3


Source: Servin Jean-Louis. Les regimes militaires. Pouvoirs N 25. P. 1983. P. 91 - 92.

page 9
Modibo Keita, a fighter for the independence of the West African countries, the first president of the Republic of Mali (1960 - 1968), said that his country "is one of the most important countries in the world."..it will never serve as a pawn in the cold War or a tool for dividing Africa."2. And this was the consolidated position of all the Non-Aligned Movement member countries. Secondly, the military activity of the USSR in Africa was predetermined by the arms race initiated by the West on this continent as well. Its new round was marked by the aggression of Great Britain, Israel and France against Egypt in October 1956, after the nationalization of the Suez Canal.

THE FIRST WAS EGYPT

Having received no support in the West, Egyptian President H. A. Nasser turned to the USSR in the summer of 1955 with a request for military assistance and received a positive response. The volume of Soviet military supplies in 1956-1967 amounted to $1.5 billion. Over the years, Egypt has received up to 600 combat and training aircraft, over 11,000 tanks, 700 armored personnel carriers, 30 warships, etc. 3

An important factor in the development of Soviet-African military-technical cooperation was the desire of young states to create national armies as an integral attribute of sovereignty and an instrument of national unity. From the very first years of independence, these countries faced problems of preserving territorial integrity, overcoming ethnic separatism and cross-border crime. In 1963, the Algerian-Moroccan war broke out due to mutual territorial claims, in 1966, the Chadian-Libyan conflict arose, and in 1967, a war broke out between the central government of Nigeria and the province of Biafra, which declared independence.

A total of 35 significant armed conflicts occurred in Africa between 1957 and the 1980s.4 Thus, the question of creating a national armed force was far from abstract for the Africans.

African leaders had to decide on the choice of a partner in the field of military construction. Some countries made corresponding requests to the USSR and its allies, which, however, often did not mean the end of their military ties with the former metropolises.

The Soviet Union responded positively to these appeals. In one way or another, he participated in the creation of the national armies of 25 African states. Weapons, military equipment, ammunition and other military and dual-use property were delivered to these countries, and military specialists were also sent. Thousands of Africans studied in Soviet military schools. In a number of armies, their graduates made up and still make up the majority of the officer corps.

Military-technical cooperation became an important tool in achieving the geopolitical and military-strategic goals of the USSR, in particular, in the context of the entry of the Soviet Navy into the World Ocean and the Air Force into global airspace. A number of African countries (Angola, Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea, and Somalia) have established "logistics points" and other military-technical infrastructure facilities.5 But the favorable attitude of the Soviet leadership to the development of military cooperation with the Africans was also explained by other considerations.

By 1960, the USSR had just regained its pre-war industrial potential; however, export resources remained limited. At the same time, Soviet arsenals accumulated a lot of weapons and military equipment left over from the Great Patriotic War and decommissioned post-war models. Their implementation in the framework of cooperation with Africans brought benefits to both sides. The Africans received good-quality weapons and military-technical services that provided solutions to the problems of increasing their defense capability and on conditions consistent with their material and financial capabilities. The Soviet Union created a strategically important component of relations with African states, and received political, military, and often financial benefits.

The USSR supplied military equipment on credit, most of which, by the way, was used for the maintenance of Soviet military specialists. Weapons were also supplied free of charge, but mostly for 30-100% of their cost, depending on the category of weapons and the capabilities of the partner country. Russian analyst A. Dyukov states: "The final balance between the costs of producing weapons and the amounts received for these weapons remained positive, even taking into account the huge debts." 6

AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE USSR

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the transition to a market economy were accompanied by a significant drop in the volume of military-technical cooperation in general and with Africa in particular. For example, the requirement of 100% prepayment of the transaction was introduced, commercial loans were reduced to a minimum, and preferential conditions for military training of African officers were reduced. New entities of the Russian military-technical business have focused on the so-called price factor and opaque or semi-transparent schemes of operations. The arms trade was hailed as " pure business and business only." In fact, the state monopoly on the arms trade was violated, although, as you know, this segment is closed-

page 10
non-economic activity in all countries is under close supervision and strict control of state structures.

The volume of exports of Russian military products has decreased, and the number of foreign partners has also decreased. Up to 80% of the volume of export transactions accounted for two countries-China and India. The leaders of these countries have shown remarkable foresight and courage to continue to direct orders for research and development (R & D) and manufacture of high-tech military equipment in Russia. R. Pukhov, a well-known analyst in this field, even claims that China and India "... actually saved the Russian defense industry. " 7

In the last decade of the 20th century, Russian exports of weapons and military equipment to Africa totaled $2 billion, including $ 1 billion more. to two countries - Algeria and Angola. If the share of the USSR in the world arms trade in the 1980s was, according to Western experts, 80%, then in the 1990s-20%, and in 1998-only 10%8.

Russian exports of weapons and military equipment turned out to be one of the rare areas where the decline was quickly stopped. The volume of arms and military equipment exports increased from $3.7 billion in 2000 to $6.1 billion in 2005.9 (according to the SIPRI methodology* and in constant 1990 prices - from $4 billion). up to $5.2 billion, respectively 10). Since then, the upward trend has been steadily maintained. From 2006 to 2013, it grew 13-fold (at current prices) and reached $81 billion. According to the results of the period from 2009 to 2013, Russia ranked 2nd (27%) in terms of arms exports, not far behind the United States, which controlled 29% of the world market 11. Russian Technologies State Holding was among the top ten global arms exporters with sales of $11.6 billion in 2013. and a profit of $5.35 billion 12.

After the export of natural resources, the sale of weapons brings our country the largest foreign exchange earnings - $35.6 billion. only for 2006-2010 13

In many ways, these successes were made possible by the restoration of the state monopoly on military exports. In 2004, the formation of the Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation (FSMTC) was completed. Rosoboronexport, part of the Russian Technologies state holding, accounts for 80% of foreign arms shipments.

The Government has adopted the Federal Target Program for the Development of the Military-Industrial Complex (MIC) for 2011-2020, which provides for state allocations of up to 3 - 4 trillion rubles for technical and technological modernization of equipment of defense industry enterprises.14 At this stage, the defense industry is assigned the role of an important lever for transforming the entire national economy on an innovative basis. This circumstance determines favorable prospects for the development of the potential of Russian exports of weapons and military equipment.

DEMAND FOR WEAPONS IN AFRICA WILL GROW

In the 2000s, the attractiveness of the African continent as a market for military products increased. Military spending in Africa increased more than 5-fold from 1996 to 2014, from $8.6 billion. up to $50.2 billion. (current prices), especially in North Africa and Tropical Africa 15.

African arms imports increased by 53% in 2009-2013 compared to the previous five-year period16. The African segment of world heavy weapons exports increased from 4% in 2003-2007 to 9% in 2008 201217

Shown in the table. 2 Data on the dynamics of global IWW exports to African countries for 2000-2013 show a significant difference in the volume of transactions on an annual basis. The peak figures are $3 billion. and above - fall in 2008, 2010-2011, and the lowest - $1.5 billion - in 2004-2005. However, if we compare five-year cycles, the upward trend generally dominates (see Table 2).

The total volume of arms exports to Africa in 2007-2013 reached $21.8 billion, which is 60% more than in 2000-2006. 18 In total, African countries imported $34 billion worth of weapons in 2000-2013. In 2014, the volume of exports exceeded $2 billion. Among the 10 largest arms importers in 2000-2013: Egypt - $8.4 billion, Algeria-8,356, South Africa-3.01, Sudan-1.8, Ethiopia-1.01, Uganda-0.86, Angola-0.66, Nigeria-0.55 and DRC - $0.4 billion 19. 60% of exports ($20.3 billion Most of the weapons are produced in North Africa.

In the new century, Africans have begun implementing large-scale programs to reorganize the armed forces and modernize their military equipment. The dominant positions in military procurement are occupied by complex and powerful weapons: jet combat aircraft, air defense missile systems, surface and submarine ships, modern tanks and armored vehicles, and the latest artillery systems. In this way, Africans strive to build the capacity to counter new threats to internal and external security.

With the deepening unevenness of economic development, the struggle for regional and sub-regional leadership is becoming more acute. Growing up

* SIPRI-Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. The methodology he developed for assessing world exports of conventional weapons is widely used by experts from different countries, although many do not consider it sufficiently reliable and exhaustive (author's note).

page 11
Table 2

World exports of arms and military equipment to Africa (2000-2013) ($ million, constant 1990 prices; exports less than $500,000-not included)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

African Union

53

9

10

72

Algeria

412

551

251

195

244

159

300

489

1529

1065

808

1135

877

342

8356

Angola

147

158

149

48

8

39

7

31

29

20

31

666

Benin

7

3

1

0

0

20

2

33

Botswana

53

15

1

9

8

13

10

8

118

Burkina Faso

19

1

4

2

0

15

0

41

Burundi

1

4

1

2

8

Cameroon

7

6

5

2

1

10

6

17

54

Cape Verde

1

2

10

13

CAR

9

0

8

17

Chad

16

17

18

77

36

23

1

4

19

210

Comoros

6

1

7

Ivory Coast

0

33

63

10

106

Republic of the Congo

0

4

1

0

1

27

23

56

DRC

93

18

14

19

17

18

41

153

11

384

Djibouti

1

3

4

8

6

22


Source: SIPRI. Arms transfers Database - http://armstrade.sipri.org/arnstrade/html/export_values.php

page 12
Continuation of table 2

World exports of arms and military equipment to African countries (2000-2013) ($ million, in constant terms 1990; exports less than $500 thousand-not taken into account)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

Egypt

797

847

722

633

613

726

748

697

336

159

686

635

312

501

8410

Equatorial Guinea

8

8

12

29

30

68

3

84

65

4

309

Eritrea

20

57

19

17

80

98

4

294

Ethiopia

142

20

176

240

54

76

200

108

1018

Gabon

6

20

18

22

5

1

2

74

Gambia

Ghana

1

1

1

6

35

0

0

16

11

2

76

48

41

238

Guinea

19

6

2

1

0

1

28

Kenya

15

10

174

Lesotho

6

1

1

8

Liberia

8

8

Libya

14

15

16

26

24

2

51

147

Madagascar

0

0

0

Malawi

3

3

Мали

7

1

13

8

3

11

9

52

Mauritania

31

27

7

9

5

11

10

100

Mauritius

6

6

Morocco

125

11

156

87

47

27

46

39

296

1411

807

43

3092

Mozambique

0

1

0

0

9

11

Namibia

21

11

16

72

6

66

15

1

59

267

Niger

14

9

1

0

13

37


page 13
Continuation of table 2

World exports of arms and military equipment to Africa (2000-2013) ($ million, constant 1990 prices; exports less than $500,000-not included)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

Nigeria

38

7

6

62

6

15

52

20

65

185

63

3

33

555

Rwanda

14

2

15

8

13

5

13

68

Seychelles

15

8

7

29

Senegal

15

9

19

6

4

4

16

6

79

Sierra Leone

9

2

0

11

Somalia

2

2

SOUTH AFRICA

6

18

262

708

881

486

128

180

212

132

2

3015

South Sudan

37

44

1

61

2

144

Sudan

110

51

204

288

122

62

29

124

84

165

160

88

343

1831

Swaziland

1

1

2

Tanzania

51

10

12

0

25

75

153

25

351

Togo

1

4

5

Tunisia

83

1

168

2

3

7

7

38

308

Uganda

6

33

38

10

5

5

23

37

471

219

20

866(867)

Zambia

33

2

0

30

5

2

1

67

139

Zimbabwe

2

10

16

25

25

77

Total: exports to Africa

1978

1863

1600

1506

1552

1873

2124

2411

2932

1846

2965

3623

2232

1691

33828

Total: world exports

18894

19516

17758

19225

21285

21353

24498

26444

24178

24286

25405

29795

28871

25570

327080

Africa's share of world IWT exports (%)

10,5

9,2

9,0

7,8

7,1

8,5

8,5

9,0

12,5

7,5

12,0

12,0

7,6

6,6

10,3


page 14
Table 3

Russian exports of arms and military equipment to African countries (2000-2013) ($ million, constant 1990 prices, volumes less than 500 thousand-not taken into account)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

Algeria

245

380

99

145

233

92

162

485

1510

1005

670

1001

866

312

7209

Angola

57

77

19

153

Burkina Faso

19

Cameroon

7

Chad

14

7

21

Djibouti

3

3

Eritrea

57

70

3

130

Ethiopia

88

174

230

54

546

Ghana

27

41

68

Guinea

1

1

Kenya

20

20

Libya

13

13

13

15

46

100

Morocco

6

75

69

27

27

27

156

Niger

8

8

Nigeria

38

1

2

27

67

Rwanda

14

14

Senegal

14

19

33

South Sudan

61

61

Sudan

95

95

32

86

277

96

20

20

20

34

68

61

66

176

1065

Uganda

19

14

442

154

20

648

Egypt

60

60

60

135

60

50

8

307

416

68

27

1310

Total: Ross, export to Africa

444

616

196

494

921

418

296

595

1378

1061

1201

1996

1154

629

11209

Total: Russian exports to all countries of the world

4043

5936

5638

5322

6189

5229

5096

5561

6343

5112

5962

8495

8391

8283

85595

Africa's share in ross, IWT exports to all countries of the world

10,9%

10%

3,5%

9%

14%

8%

4%

10,95

22%

20%

20%

23%

13%

7,5%

13%


Source: SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database - http://www.sipri.org/datases/armstransfers/background

page 15
temptations to "regulate" mutual territorial and other claims along the paths of the arms race. In many African countries, threats of separatism, sometimes instigated from outside, are becoming more acute. The dangers associated with drug trafficking and the intensification of international terrorist and criminal groups have increased.

In order to preserve favorable conditions for the exploitation of the continent's natural resources, as well as under the pretext of fighting terrorism and protecting democracy, Western countries are expanding the military component in their relations with African States. These motives, which underlie the new round of the arms race in Africa, are long-term.

RUSSIAN EXPORTERS ' OFFENSIVE

In recent years, Russian arms exporters have been expanding their offensive on the African continent. A breakthrough year was 2006, when Algeria signed a large package of contracts for the supply and modernization of military equipment and weapons, including fighter jets, submarines, anti-aircraft missile systems, etc.

According to SIPRI, Russian exports of weapons and military equipment to Africa increased by 30% between 2000 and 2008.20 In total, during the period 2000-2013, Russia exported military products to the continent for $11.68 billion, or 11.7% of the total Russian arms exports over the same years (see Table 3). In 2014, the volume of Russian arms exports amounted to $362 million. In 2013, our country accounted for 30% of the all-Africa IWT market: in North Africa-43%, in sub-Saharan Africa-12% 21. According to the FSMTC, at the end of 2014, Africa accounted for more than 30% of the portfolio of orders for Russian weapons and military equipment.22

North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco) absorb almost 80% of Russian arms exports (2000-2013) to the continent. Exports to 39 sub-Saharan countries have reached $2.5 billion over the past 14 years.

According to the results of 2000-2013, the five largest buyers of Russian weapons are: Algeria - $7.2 billion, Egypt - 1.3 billion, Sudan-1.065 billion, Uganda - 0.648 billion, and Ethiopia - $0.546 billion. These five countries account for more than 85% of Russia's military-technical equipment exports to the African continent.

Algeria today is an important strategic partner of Russia in Africa in the field of military-technical cooperation. December 2013 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of the first Soviet-Algerian agreement on such cooperation. Over five decades, we have accumulated extensive experience in its practical implementation, including material and technical, trade and business and legal components, as well as extensive human contacts. Over 10,000 Soviet military specialists, including more than 200 translators, served in Algeria.23

Without such experience, it is unlikely that it would have been possible to implement a program of rearmament of the Algerian army based on the latest generations of Russian air, naval, armored, anti-aircraft and missile technology, which made it possible to significantly increase the power of the country's armed forces in just 6 to 7 years.

The volume of Russian military-industrial equipment exports to Algeria in 2000-2013 exceeded $7 billion. and accounted for approximately 85% of Algeria's arms imports and 60% of Russia's exports to the continent (see Table 4). In 2014, Russian supplies totaled $173 million. Russian supplies are dominated by high-tech categories of military equipment. Aircraft, military surface and submarines, air defense missile systems and world-class armored vehicles account for up to 90% of Russia's exports to Algeria.

Such high qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cooperation require constant and increased attention to all the details of its development. The more painful the perceived flaws and omissions that occur. So, in 2008, Algeria returned 15 MIG-29 SMT and MIG-29 UBT fighters to us, because Aviaremsnab supplied some of the components from its stock instead of new components and components. The Russian side was forced to supply new aircraft 24.

In recent years, the Algerian side has stepped up efforts to diversify foreign military-technical cooperation.25 Agreements were reached with Germany on the supply of vehicles, with the United States on military transport aviation and a set of electronic equipment for border control. In the summer of 2014, the first of three corvettes ordered by Algeria from China was launched in Shanghai.

Nevertheless, the saturation of the Algerian army with Russian-made military products remains at a fairly high level. More and more efforts are required to solve the problems of after-sales service, modernization of previously delivered weapons systems, and introduction of new forms of military cooperation. The need to maintain the country's military-defense potential at the proper level in the coming years is unlikely to weaken due to Algeria's involvement in the Middle East crisis. The "Arab Spring" and Islamic extremism in the Sahel region do not reduce the risk of a new escalation of the conflict with radical Islamic terrorism inside the country. In addition, ureguli is moving slowly-

page 16
Table 4

Russian military-technical equipment exports to Algeria 2000-2013 ($ mln, in 1990 prices)

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Total

Volume of Russian exports

245

380

99

145

233

92

162

485

1510

1005

670

1001

866

312

7505

Algeria's share in ross, exports of weapons and military equipment to Africa

26%

90%

64%

Russia's share in Algeria's arms imports

50%

51%

85%


Source: SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

Table 5

Russian military-technical equipment exports to Egypt (2000-2013) (USD million, constant 1990 prices)

1990 - 2000

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2010

2011

2012

2013

2000 - 2013

Volume of Russian exports

230

60

60

60

135

60

50

367

416

66

27

1310

Egypt's share in ROSS, exports of military equipment to Africa

12%

Russia's share in Egypt's arms imports

17%


Source: SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

page 17
resolving territorial problems with Morocco and disagreements over the status of Western Sahara. An intense arms race continues between Algeria and Morocco.

In 2000-2013, the volume of world exports of weapons and military equipment to Morocco amounted to $3 billion, which is 2.7 times less than to Algeria. However, this gap has been narrowing in recent years. Thus, if the volume of external arms supplies to Algeria in 2008 - 2012 increased by 277% compared to the five - year period 2003-2007, then the supply of weapons and military equipment to Morocco increased by 1460% .26 In 2011, the Moroccans purchased $1.4 billion worth of weapons, Algeria - $1.1 billion, and in 2012 - $0.807 and $0.377 billion, respectively. Morocco's main suppliers of weapons and military equipment: the United States -$933 million. (30% for the period 2000-2013) and France - $938 million (33%). Russia sold the kingdom $156 million worth of military equipment (mainly Tunguska air defense systems)over the same period.27.

Egypt was the first country in Africa to purchase Soviet-made weapons and military equipment in 1955. Military-technical cooperation between Egypt and the USSR developed especially rapidly during the reign of H. A. Nasser.

Sadat, who came to power after Nasser's death in 1970, made a separate peace with Israel and ended military cooperation with the Soviet Union. At his request, 8,000 Soviet military specialists and their families were evacuated from Egypt by the end of August 197228. Since 1979 (after the conclusion of a peace agreement with Israel) The United States provided $1.3 billion annually to Egypt. as military aid. Between 2003 and 2012, the United States accounted for 59 % of Egypt's arms importations29.

However, military-technical cooperation with Russia did not stop, and when H. Mubarak came to power in 1981, it became somewhat more active. Russian exports of military products to Egypt in 2000-2013 amounted to $1.31 billion. (in 1990-2000 - $230 million), which allowed it to take the 2nd place among the African clients of Russia 30 (see Table 5). Our country supplied Egypt with Pechora, Buk and other anti-aircraft missile systems, modernizes T-62 tanks, heavy armored personnel carriers, other military equipment that was sent during the Soviet period.

The removal by the Egyptian army of the representative of the Muslim Brotherhood, M. Morsi, from the post of president in July 2013 and the election of Marshal al-Sisi to this post in June 2014 opens up opportunities for expanding Russian-Egyptian military-technical cooperation. On the eve of the presidential election in February 2014, al-Sisi visited Moscow. During the meeting with Vladimir Putin, the Egyptian leader spoke in favor of expanding cooperation with Russia in all areas. In particular, the issue of the possibility of supplying $2 billion worth of Russian weapons to Egypt was resolved.

The deep involvement of both countries in the processes taking place in the Middle East and the similarity of positions in the face of new challenges emerging in this extremely important region in terms of international security give sufficient grounds for favorable forecasts for the further development of the military-technical cooperation between Russia and Egypt.

(The ending follows)

1 http://paixetdeveloppement.net/afrique-defense-et-securite-...

Keita Modibo. 2 Speeches and speeches. Translated from French. Moscow, 1964. P. 76.

Sinaisky S. 3 Military cooperation between the USSR and Egypt: a retrospective // International life. 2012, No. 12, p. 162.

Konovalov I., Shubin G. 4 Modern Africa: wars and weapons. Moscow, IAfr RAS, 2012, p. 8. (Konovalov I., Shubin G. 2012. Sovremennaya Afrika: voiny i oruzhie. M.) (in Russian)

Shirokorad A. B. 5 Rossiiskie voennye bazy za rubezhom v XVIII-XXI vv [Russian military bases abroad in the XVIII-XXI centuries]. Moscow, 2013, pp. 311-314.

Dyukov A. 6 Return to the Tropical market: Russia's Military-technical Cooperation with the Black African countries - http://a-diukov;Livejournal.com/1266446.html

Pukhov R. 7 Russian arms export: from commerce to Politics -www.ukrrudprom.ua/digest/dewqh/23108.html

8 SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database - http://www.sipri.org/datases/armstransfers/background

9 Ibidem.

10 Ibid.

11 President of Russia. Moscow, Kremlin, April 25, 2014.

12 SIPRI. Yearbook 2013. Summary. P. 9.

13 Center for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies. Military-technical cooperation and the Russian defense industry: statistical data. p. 5 - cast.ru/files/book/all-stats_14_02_2012 pdf

14 From the materials of the military-industrial conference "Topical issues of the development of the defense industry of the Russian Federation" - http://blackseafleet-21.com/news/21-03-2013_dmitriy-medvedev-pc...

15 SIPRI. Yearbook 2014. Resume. P. 8.

16 Military-industrial courier. 26.03.2014; SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

17 SIPRI. Yearbook 2013. Summary. P. 11.

18 SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

19 Ibidem.

20 Ibid.

21 RIA Novosti/La Voix de la Russie - http://frenh.ruvr.ru/2014-09-22/La-Russie-compteangmenter-...

22 http://newsrbk.ru/news/1700867-rossiya-rasshirila-geog-rafiyu-ensp...

23 Memoirs of participants in rendering assistance to the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (1960-2000s). Ed. by A. A. Tokarev. Moscow, 2013, p. 6.

24 Subsequently, following a judicial investigation, Aviaremsnab executives were convicted of supplying counterfeit spare parts-see: Les ventes d'armes au service du renouveau de la Russie. Sous la direction de Peer De Jong. Fevrier 2012. P. 19 - 20 (infoquerre.fr/rosobonexport-les-ventes...)

25 SIPRI estimated for 2011 the volume of military - technical equipment exports to Algeria from France at $26 million, Italy at $16 million, Great Britain at $ 42 million, and the United States at $ 11 million.

Mattel S. 26 Transferts d'armes vers l'Afrique du Nord. GRIP. Bruxelles. 2014. P. 12.

27 SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

Sinaisky P. 28 Decree. Op. p. 170.

29 SIPRI. Arms Transfers Database...

30 Ibidem.


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