Libmonster ID: UK-1396
Author(s) of the publication: G. R. BALTANOVA


Doctor of Philosophy, Kazan State Power Engineering University

Keywords: Islamic State, caliphate, jihad, sharia, fiqh, hadith, ayat, kufr

The "open letter" to Dr. Ibrahim Awwad al-Badri (aka Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi), fighters and followers of the self - proclaimed Islamic State (IS), written on September 19, 2014,1 is a kind of manifestation of the modern understanding of official theologians and spiritual leaders of such important concepts of Islam as "caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "Caliphate", "caliphate" and "caliphate". "caliph", "jihad", "Islamic state", "Sharia", "Fiqh", "Kufr", etc.

The letter was signed by 126 Muslim leaders of global significance, including deans and professors of the most influential Islamic universities, such as al-Azhar, Cairo University, Tanta, al-Mansoura (Egypt), Al - Bayt (Jordan), Aukaf (Yemen); muftis of such countries as Bulgaria, Kosovo, Uzbekistan; heads of major Islamic associations, faqihs (lawyers).

We will immediately make a reservation that we will not give an assessment of military activities, crimes, public speeches of IR leaders, as well as those chilling videos that have flooded the Internet. Also, we will not touch on such a complex issue as the participation of Western and Eastern countries and organizations in the emergence of the IG, the sources of funding for the group.

At the moment, it is hardly possible to obtain complete objective information on these issues. It is quite obvious that foreign aid has not been dispensed with here. It is also obvious that the "sponsors" could hardly have guessed what kind of genie they were releasing from the bottle. We plan to conduct this analysis later in another publication.

The purpose of this article is to identify ideological contradictions between leading scholars (ulema) and the leaders of IG 2 on the most important principles and categories of the Islamic socio - philosophical concept. To be fair, these are the very issues that have been discussed throughout the history of the Islamic world.

The second necessary clarification is that the proposed analysis is based on the Islamic theoretical foundation and methodology. It means that referring to the Qur'an and hadiths (stories about the actions and sayings of the Prophet and his closest companions) means appealing to the sources that have the greatest authority.

Finally, the third point is that this article presents my understanding of both the problems themselves and the views of the leading Ulama on them. I would like to clarify that this is in case of possible objections about the unsubstantiated transmission of the text of the letter.

"Al-Baghdadi's Open Letter", at the time of writing, has been translated into almost all European languages, with the exception of Russian.

Unfortunately, the emergence of the Islamic State and its transformation into a caliphate is still beyond the scope of scientific Islamic studies. A public trial is decided and verdicts are delivered by biased politicians, newspaper journalists, TV announcers, showmen, glamorous beau monde (for example, the American actor Sean Penn), but not by those who are required to do this professionally: Islamic scholars, theologians, authoritative Muslim believers.

This article is our attempt to start analyzing the IG phenomenon from a philosophical perspective.

The "Open Letter" contains 24 statements that reveal the ideological contradictions between official theologians and radical leaders. We will look at the most important points of the letter in more detail, but we will only list the rest, which is determined by the publication format.

In the introductory part of the letter, the problem of modern understanding of the mission of the Prophet and Muslims is raised. The pathos of radicalism and extremism is based on it. In his speech, one of the ideologues of the Islamic State, Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, quotes the following hadith:: "God blesses Muhammad, who was sent with the sword as a mercy for all the worlds."

IS supporters often justify their radical military actions with this thesis. However, this interpretation causes a huge number of errors and misconceptions. Despite the truth of this hadith, it is necessary to consider in what conditions and on what occasion it originated. This was due to the specific military campaign of the Prophet Muhammad. This brings us to the dialectic of the general, the particular, and the particular in Islam.

The general statement is the verses (sections of the sura - chapter) of the Qur'an, which repeatedly state that "We did not send you except as a mercy for all the worlds" (Qur'an, 22:107).

It is impossible to substitute verses of the Qur'an and hadiths, just as it is impossible to mix the general and the particular. The Qur'anic statement "Muhammad is a mercy for the worlds" is general, while "Muhammad with the sword is a mercy for the worlds" is specific and applied in certain circumstances.

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi became the leader of the Islamic State after the former al-Baghdadi (Abu Abudullah al-Rashid al-Baghdadi) was killed in Iraq as a result of American shelling in 2010. author's note).

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Mercy for the worlds is an axiom, an unconditional position; mercy approved by the sword is conditional, associated with specific military events.

One should not take a quote out of context, nor should one quote a statement without mentioning everything that is said on this subject in the Qur'an and authentic hadiths. This is the only way to decide which of the statements has more weight and can be used in each specific situation.

The first point of the Open Letter concerns Usul al-Fiqh, the theory of law. It consists in the fact that when making a fatwa (theological and legal opinion) or any legal decision concerning the life of the Muslim community-the Ummah, it is necessary to rely on the fullness of available official sources and documents.

It is necessary to include all the verses of the Qur'an related to this issue, all the hadiths, opinions of authoritative Ulama, conclusions and historical precedents. It is unacceptable to take phrases out of the context of sacred sources in order to legitimize their own military decisions and actions, as IS adherents often demonstrate.

The second position of the letter concerns the Arabic language. Knowledge, and most importantly-understanding of the subtleties of Fusha (classical Arabic), is necessary when using and interpreting sources. This knowledge requires a comprehensive education, long-term, painstaking work and constant improvement in such areas as grammar, syntax, morphology, comparative linguistics, etc., which the ideologists of the Islamic State cannot boast of.

In the" Open Letter", the sheikhs refer to a misunderstanding of the concept of "caliph" (ruler, vicegerent of God). In their opinion, al-Baghdadi unfairly declares the Caliphate as a political power and as a " promise made by God."

Meanwhile, the Qur'an says that God promises fighters for the faith the right of succession (istikhlaf). "...Allah will defeat your enemies and make you a successor on earth... "(Quran 7: 129).

There is a difference in the words khalif (caliphate) and istikhlaf, despite the commonality of their root (h-l-f). According to the authors of the letter, "istikhlaf" does not mean a specific political rule, but continuity, the right to live in the occupied territory.

In the third paragraph, the sheikhs refer to the speech of one of the leaders of the Islamic State, Abu al-Baraa al-Hindi, in July 2014, in which he said: "Open the Koran and read what it says about jihad, and everything will become clear to you." In fact, the Qur'an repeatedly speaks about the difference, measure, degree and depth of understanding of the Message.

It is necessary to distinguish between general and situational verses, abrogated and abrogated, as well as to know exactly the conditions of revelation. Therefore, simplifying the meaning, as well as arbitrarily quoting the text, is tantamount to misinterpreting it. ISIS ideologues often snatch quotes from verses and hadiths, cutting off their endings so that they start to sound odious.

The pathos of the fourth paragraph of the letter is directed against those acts of ill-treatment of enemies that are demonstrated by supporters of the IG.

When solving any problem, there are always at least two ways: the right one and the dubious one. If a controversial situation arises, especially concerning other people, it is necessary to adhere to the best (merciful) point of view on how to get out of it.

This understanding is based on a hadith that says: "Don't be cruel, or God will be cruel to you." If there are two ways to solve a political or military problem, you should always choose the one that is most humane. The triumphant victories of Islam during the first caliphs were not due to the brutality of the fighters for the faith, but to their political flexibility, diplomatic and economic measures.

Fiqh al-waqig (practical law) deals with the fifth provision of the letter. In this case, practical law in writing refers to the application of Sharia norms and rules, taking into account the circumstances in which people live. The theory of law is general in nature, while practice should take into account a specific case (precedent).

In the sixth paragraph, the authors of the letter accuse IS fighters of killing innocent people who were neither military nor armed, which is forbidden in Islam. Murder in Islam, as stated in the Qur'an, can only be justified on the principle of "soul for soul" or in response to the spread of fasad (immorality, vice) on earth.

The sheikhs make a similar accusation about the murder of emissaries in the seventh position of their appeal. This is certainly haraam (forbidden), as long as they are not spies. The Sunnah says, with reference to the Prophet's closest companions, that " emissaries were never killed." The murder of social worker David Haynes, journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff, even after his mother applied for clemency, cannot be justified by anything.

Most interesting is the problem of understanding jihad, which is described in the next (8th) paragraph. The authors condemn al-Baghdadi's well-known speech on July 4, 2014, in which he says: "There is no life without jihad", referring to participation in the armed struggle.

Of course, this statement is extremist in nature, because many people have lived and are living in conditions where, hopefully, they will not be required to take military action.

In Islam, there are no contradictions between the founders of the four madhhabs (religious and legal schools) - Hanafis, Hanbalis, Shafiis, Malikis - on the question of what jihad is. Jihad as a war for faith is a general (ford kifaya), not an individual duty (fard ain).

The declaration of jihad cannot be the will of an individual. The letter states that jihad has never been used as a struggle against terrorism.

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muslims. However, we see that in recent history, fratricidal conflicts among Muslims have often been fought under the slogan of jihad as a war for the righteous faith.

The "Open Letter" says that the fanatical fearlessness and self-sacrifice of the IS fighters in what they understand as jihad-a war for the faith - cannot be refuted even by their sworn enemies. Whether they understand jihad correctly is another matter.

Jihad without a legitimate cause, without a true purpose, without methodology and without conscious, voluntary collective participation turns into unjustified violence and crime.

Killing captives is also considered haram. Meanwhile, ISIS is responsible for the murder of 1,700 prisoners of war in Tikrit in June 2014, 250 in Raqqa in August 2014, and many other reliable facts. All of them are treated by the Ulama as war crimes.

The reference to the Prophet in this matter is not justified, since he ordered the killing of two prisoners of war in the battle of Badr for the reason that they were not only military leaders, but also war criminals.

In the" Open Letter", the sheikhs elaborate on two types of jihad: the great jihad-the fight against Nafsa, and the lesser jihad-against the enemy. Nafs is often interpreted as "ego", whereas if we follow the interpretation of Z. Rather, we should use the term "Eid" in reference to jihad - the dark, animal nature of man. In another context, nafs can have the meaning of "self", individuality.

Thus, a declaration of military jihad cannot be made without obvious reasons and collective consent. While the great jihad-the struggle against one's nafs and for one's own faith-must be continuous.

Despite the traditional nature of this interpretation of jihad, you will agree that it is unlikely to be heard now by participants in real wars, regardless of which side they are fighting on.

The ninth point of the letter concerns takfir (accusing people of disbelief). Accusing a person of being a kafir (infidel) is a huge responsibility and cannot be an arbitrary act.

The letter includes a link to a YouTube video of Shaker Wahid - one of the IS leaders - stopping unarmed people who claimed to be Muslims. He made them name the number of rak'ahs (a strict order of postures, movements, and spoken formulas) in certain prayers. After they made a mistake, he shot them.

If IS fighters knew Sharia law well and followed its spirit and letter, they would not have committed such crimes. It is strictly forbidden to accuse people of disbelief based on their words, individual actions, because they can be caused by ignorance, poor memory or fear, as in this situation. Moreover, it is forbidden to accuse people of disbelief on the basis of disagreements on a number of issues on which even the ulama of different schools have disagreements.

The authors of the letter strongly disagree with the inhumane treatment of people of other faiths, especially the Christian population of the occupied territories. This is reflected in the tenth paragraph of their letter.

The Islamic State has set three paths for Arab Christians: jizya (tax), conversion to Islam, or death. Meanwhile, in fact, their homes were destroyed, their property was seized, churches were destroyed, and some people were killed.

There is and cannot be any justification for this, since Christians are indigenous inhabitants of these lands and have the same rights, including the right to worship. Moreover, Christians, as well as Jews, are Ahl al-Kitab-people of the Book, monotheists.

As you know, the IS Islamists showed particular cruelty against the Yezidis. Yazidi idolaters, according to all madhhabs, must pay jizya and cannot be harassed solely on the basis of their religious beliefs.

The ideologues of the Islamic State declared the Yezidis Satanists and therefore effectively outlawed both themselves and them. Meanwhile, the principle of dhimmi (patronage) should be applied to Yezidis, as well as to all those who profess polytheism. Dhimmiyas, i.e. peoples under protection, were subject to a jizya (tax) and had strict restrictions on their appearance and observance of rituals. Accordingly, Islam guaranteed them the right to personal integrity. In the Islamic State, this Islamic principle is also violated (paragraph 11 of the letter).

Paragraph 12 discusses a seemingly forgotten issue in the Islamic world, such as slavery. We know that slavery in its classical form was not common among the Arabs even in the time of Muhammad. Later, the majority of the Ulama came to a unanimous conclusion about the complete prohibition of slavery.

Selling and exchanging people, using them as a cover or, conversely, putting them in the front line of fire as a human shield, concubinate**, practiced by IS, are crimes against Islam and undermine the trust of all Muslims in it.

The thirteenth paragraph discusses the forced conversion to Islam practiced in IS. The following hadith is widely known: "There is no compulsion in religion." However, IS leaders forcibly forced people to convert to Islam, as well as Muslims to adopt the ideas and rules of IS life.

The fourteenth position of the letter aroused my special interest, because for several years I had been working on the issue of the status of women in Islam3.

Among the sheikhs who signed the letter, there are many who strictly adhere to the fundamentalist approach to women-mandatory full hijab, domestic work, restricted movement, prohibition

* The" I "of a person consists of two levels:" Ego "- the rational " I "and" Id " - the biological, instinctive nature of a person.

** Illegal cohabitation.

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for driving a car, the rules of the certificate in court, the rules of marriage and divorce, and so on. However, even they reproach IS figures for medieval discrimination against women. Selling women into slavery, treating them as personal possessions, strict rules regarding their appearance and behavior, banning hired labor, attending educational institutions, and forcibly marrying off army soldiers - this is the reality of IS.

The media coverage of a boy being shot has generated the greatest outpouring of hatred for IS, even among those who initially favored it. The authors of the letter in the fifteenth paragraph bring down righteous anger on the heads of IS leaders for their attitude towards children; children are killed, and children are killed, children are forced to religion and force their peers.

We know from numerous testimonies that children as young as nine are used in IS military operations, and six-year-olds are trained in military camps.

However, in Islam, there are precise instructions on when children become full members of the community and can take part in collective actions. The use of children in military operations is prohibited, as is the killing of children. This is a crime and is punishable under sharia law.

On the issue of the death penalty (discussed in the sixteenth paragraph), there is a fundamental difference between Western and Muslim civilisations4.

At one time, I studied the modern declarations of human rights that appeared in the Islamic world. The reference to the use of the death penalty (hadd) is derived from the Qur'an and Hadith and is an integral part of Islamic law. Islamic law clearly defines all possible types of punishments, these regulations are sacred in nature and cannot be changed.

The system of punishments is based on the following principles: sacredness, inevitability, equivalence, justice. Hadd applies to the most serious crimes that are considered crimes against God: murder, apostasy, and adultery. Accordingly, the punishment is interpreted as a punishment of God. The unjustified use of the death penalty by IS militants, often without a qualified, or even without any trial, becomes a crime.

In the seventeenth point of the charges, the authors of the letter give examples of bullying of prisoners and people controlled by the IS. This is strictly forbidden in Sharia law. Moreover, the most outrageous cases are cases of bullying of people sentenced to death, which also contradicts the rules of Sharia law, which clearly prescribes the procedure for carrying out it.

The authors of the letter express their just indignation at the inhumane footage that IS supporters post on the Internet and other media. Endlessly relishing scenes of violence and bullying strikes at Islam, causes hatred not only for extremists, but also for all Muslims, and is a crime against Allah (paragraph 18).

In the next, nineteenth, paragraph, the authors reproach the IG for speculating on the name of God. While committing their vandalistic acts, IS fighters declare on the air that everything they do is done in the name of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad. In this way, they try to justify their actions in their own eyes and in the eyes of other people. However, they cause irreparable damage not only to themselves, Muslims around the world, and Islam in general, but also to the values of the entire human civilization.

The destruction of the graves and monuments of the Prophet and his companions, committed by IS fighters, is discussed in the twentieth paragraph of the appeal of the sheikhs.

As you know, Islam has an ambiguous interpretation of the construction of tombstones, as well as all the rituals associated with visiting cemeteries. In early Islam, in the fight against idolatry and the cult of the dead, the practice of erecting tombstones and visiting them ritually was condemned. Until now, including in the Russian community, the question of whether it is possible or not to visit the cemetery for women is widely debated.

Former IS leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi said:: "In our opinion, we must destroy all manifestations of idolatry... because Ali ibn abi Talib, referring to the Prophet, said that we should destroy all the statues and level all the graves."

Fundamentalists at all times tried to destroy the tombstones, hiding behind the slogans of purifying Islam from the appearance of innovations. Meanwhile, the authors of the letter express their unanimous opinion that everything connected with the resting places of the Prophet and his closest companions cannot be destroyed. The companions of the Prophet were unanimous on the issue of the burial of Muhammad, Abu Bakr and Umar and the construction of the mosque as a place of visitation (ziyar).

Very controversial is the following, the 21st paragraph of the Ulema proclamation, which concerns a revolt against the government of the country. There can be no legal rebellion against a ruler who does not violate Islamic laws, does not inculcate disbelief (kufr), and does not prohibit worship.

The letter contains many hadiths and authoritative statements that say that as long as the ruler does not show his disbelief and does not interfere with worship, one should submit to his authority. If he violates these requirements, he can be removed as a result of a qualified opinion, and a new ruler is appointed in his place, again collectively. But this must happen without rebellion, armed insurrection, or bloodshed.

From our point of view, this position in the letter, despite its traditional and theological validity, sounds somewhat irrelevant in the light of the "Arab Spring".

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spring", as well as those revolutions, unrest and demonstrations that have taken place and continue to take place throughout the Islamic world.

When the cup of patience of a people suffering under the burden of a cruel or corrupt government is overflowing, is it really up to a qualified conclusion and counting of votes? In addition, millions of Muslims live in States that have anti-Islamic foreign policies.

One of the most difficult is the 22nd provision of the letter, which concerns the Caliphate. There is full agreement - ittifaq - of Muslim scholars on the issue of establishing the Caliphate as a duty of the Ummah.

The Caliphate ceased to exist in 1924. And this, of course, weakened the unity of Muslim nations. However, the new caliphate, according to the authors of the letter, requires the consensus of all Muslims, and not just some of them in a certain corner of the world.

Declaring a caliphate without such consensus is fitna-a sin, primarily because it is done without taking into account the opinion of Muslims living in other countries*. This may also lead to self-proclaimed caliphates appearing in other countries, which will further divide the Ummah. This is confirmed by the fact that the imam of Mosul did not obey the leaders of the IG, for which he was killed.

In his speech, al-Baghdadi referred to Caliph Abu Bakr, who said ," I have been given authority over you, but I am not the best of you." Thus, he tried to justify the self-declaration.

The authors of the Open Letter ask a reasonable question: who gave al-Baghdadi power over the Ummah and the right to make decisions? And if this power is given to IS, which has several thousand people, what right does this group have to impose its opinion on 1.5 billion Muslims around the world?

Moreover, the non-recognition of the caliphate's power behind IS leads to the fact that all those who do not recognize it are automatically declared insufficiently devout Muslims. If the IS authorities recognize Muslims as Muslims, they must assert their right to a caliphate through an institution such as the shura (council). Moreover, the Shura in the issue of the caliphate requires the participation of all Muslim countries, Muslim scholars and religious figures.

We would like to emphasize that the concept of the caliphate is one of the most important in Muslim social theory.

The caliph is the vicegerent of Allah on earth; accordingly, the caliphate is a social and political institution that ensures the authority of the caliph. It cannot initially be limited geographically or geopolitically. In fact, the first serious split in the Ummah occurred precisely on the issue of the Caliphate.

The first four caliphs (Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali) were chosen by the Muslim community. However, Shiites believe that only Ali is the legitimate viceroy and successor of Muhammad. Other political groups made their own claims. There were also contradictions between different trends on the question of whether the caliph should be descended only from the family of Muhammad, i.e., be a Hashemite, or whether he should earn this right by personal merits. Already in the ninth century, the Caliph was transformed from a political figure into the spiritual leader of Muslims around the world.

The arguments presented by the authors of the Open Letter on the issue of the Caliphate actually have a much broader meaning. In practice, they make the revival of the caliphate impossible even in the spiritual sense, since it is difficult to talk about the consensus of Muslims even within one country. But this does not mean that the idea of a caliphate ceases to be attractive to many, many Muslims. Now in one part of the Muslim world, now in another, there are leaders or groups seeking to implement the concept of the Caliphate in real life.

The caliphate for Muslims is not so much a real political association, but rather unity on fundamental issues, support, brotherhood, as well as the presence of an unconditional leader who is authorized to solve global issues and even make necessary changes to Sharia law in some cases.

The caliphate is not so much a rational as an emotional concept, which expresses the longing of Muslims for the golden age of Islam, the heyday of science, culture, the era of unity and world power.

In one of his speeches, al-Baghdadi said: "Syria is not just for Syrians, and Iraq is not just for Iraqis." He also called on all Muslims to emigrate to the lands controlled by IS in Iraq and the Levant, while there is still such an opportunity.

However, the authors of the letter object to this invitation in paragraph 23 of the appeal. They believe that the resources, riches and territories of these countries, first of all, belong to the indigenous people. They compare the call of the IS with the situation in Israel, when the displaced people drove the Muslims of Palestine from their lands.

It seems to us that the idea of Islamic emigration can hardly be completely rejected. Of course, regardless of the current territory of the IG.

The history of Islam itself begins with the Hijra , the time when Muhammad and his companions (Muhajirs) migrated from Mecca to Medina. And, according to sources, the Medinans not only accepted Muslims, but also provided them with their own homes, material resources and even business opportunities.

The history of Russia also provides us with many examples of both religious and ideological migration, which has always been forced and caused damage to both sides.

* There is considerable evidence that the announcement of the caliphate came as a surprise to many senior ISIL leaders.

** Hashemite-from the Hashim family, who lived in Mecca (author's note).

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The last item of the " Open Letter "is called"Emigration". As you know, fighters from many countries of the world are fighting in the ranks of the IS, moreover, there are even national battalions, in particular, the so-called Chechen (al-Shishani).

Recruitment of supporters and calls to join the IS army are an important aspect of the activities of its leaders. So, one of the fighters, Abu Muslim al-Canadi, called on all Muslims: "Join us in Syria until the gates are closed." The authors of the" Open Letter " claim that his appeal contradicts the words of Muhammad from the generally accepted hadith, which states that after the capture of Mecca, emigration ended and jihad remains.

In conclusion, the authors of the" Open Letter " once again remind the IS leaders of the words about the mercy and mercy of Allah and call on them to stop their criminal acts, primarily directed against Islam and Muslims.

As a warning to those who may be misguided about ISIS, the authors cite the words of Ali ibn Talib, the fourth Caliph, who said:: "When you see the black flags, stay where you are and don't move your arm or leg. After that, a weak, worthless people will appear. Their hearts will be like pieces of iron. They will have a state. They will not fulfill any agreements or contracts. They will call for the truth, but they are not people of the truth. Their names will be their father's, but their nicknames will be derived from cities. Their hairstyles will be like women's. So it will be until they go their separate ways. After that, God will send down the truth through whomever He wills."

Ali's words seem to reproduce the image of the IS fighters, starting with black flags and ending with their paternal names - "kunya" (after their son, for example, Abu Muslim - Muslim's father) and nicknames after their cities - al-Baghdadi, al-Canadi, al-Tunisi, al-Zarqawi*.

As for the "length of hair" and "heart of iron", Ali's providence is impeccable, and "weakness", "worthlessness" - this, according to the sheikhs, refers to the worldview and morals of some of the IS fighters, among whom, judging by their own speeches, many people are poorly educated, unruly and criminal.

Regarding internal differences ("until they disperse among themselves"), there is also evidence for Ali's words: the leaders of the IS have parted ways with their main associates, Al - Qaeda, and also lost influence over some Islamic extremist groups.

We know that black flags have been flown on the streets and battlefields of Islamic history. The flags that we most often see in the numerous images of IS fighters are reproductions of the personal seal of the Prophet Muhammad, which says "Messenger of Allah Muhammad", and on top of the seal are the most sacred words for all Muslims "La ilaha il-Allah" (There is no god but Allah).

The point, in the end, is not even in the black flags or the length of the hair, but in the fact that the "Open Letter" once again confirms the deep gap that separates official Islam - the Muslim establishment, and its opponent - unofficial Islam, which in recent decades has increasingly appeared in the form of radical, extremist groups. and terrorist groups.

And this situation is observed in almost all countries of the traditional spread of Islam. Unfortunately, in Russia too. In those countries where Islam is the religion of emigrants and guest workers, the situation is somewhat different.

The function of the clergy is to unite the faithful, monitor the purity of religion and make necessary changes in religious life. When there is no church structure and no powerful spiritual center like the Caliphate, individuals, groups, or organizations feel completely free to embrace Islam. They believe that they have the right to interpret its provisions as they want or benefit at the moment.

As for the "Open Letter" of the most authoritative Ulema 5, we can say in the words of the proletarian leader: "they are terribly far from the people."

* * *

All the political battles, revolutions, and unrest in the Muslim world of the twenty-first century have shown us how little official Islam can influence events in its regions. The unification of the world's leading spiritual leaders is hardly effective if it is not able not only to stop, but even to anticipate fratricidal conflicts, limiting itself, alas, to belated appeals.

* For example, al-Zarqawi comes from the name of the city of Zarqa in Jordan (author's note).


2 The Islamic group originated in 1999 and was called "Jamaat al-taw-hid wal Jihad" (Association of Monotheism and jihad); since March 2011, the name has changed to ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant). In June 2014, the group declared itself a worldwide caliphate and its current leader, al-Baghdadi, a caliph, and the name changed to Daesh (Da'lah islamiyya). author's note).

Baltanova G. 3 Musulmanka. M., 2007. (Baltanova G. 2007. Musulmanka. M.); ee same. Handbook of a young Muslim woman, St. Petersburg, 2011. (Baltanova G. 2011. Rukovodstvo molodoi musulmanki. SPb) (all - in Russian)

Baltanova G. R. 4 Crime and punishment: an Islamic concept // Bulletin of Human Rights. (Special issue devoted to the problem of the abolition of the death penalty in Russia) Moscow, 2001. (Baltanova G. R. 2001. Prestuplenie i nakazanie: islamskaya kontseptsiya / / Vestnik prav cheloveka. M.) (in Russian)

5 The authors of the letter include Sultan Muhammad Saad Ababakar - Sultan of Sokoto; Head of the Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs, Prof. Adurahman Abbad; Prof. Jaffar Abdussalam - Secretary General of the League of Islamic Universities; Prince Jaj Bola Abduljabar Ajibola - Islamic Mission of Africa; Sheikh Shawki Allam-Grand Mufti of Egypt; Sheikh Azhar Aziz-President of the Islamic Community of the United States; Sheikh Abdullah bin Bayyah-President of the Forum for Peace in Islamic Countries; Prince Ghazi bin Muhammad-Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Al-Fitr Al-Fitr.Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad Hussein - Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, as well as former and current muftis of Bulgaria, Kosovo, Sweden, sheikhs from the Fatwa Council of Egypt, etc. (approx. author's note).


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Jack Dowly
London, United Kingdom
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30.11.2023 (140 days ago)
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