Libmonster ID: UK-1340
Author(s) of the publication: An. A. GROMYKO


Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: new world order, big mess, globalization and global governance, human spiritual life, UN Charter

Everyone has always been concerned about the preservation of peace on the decaying planet Earth. They talk about it as "our house", that it should be protected from destruction and, especially, fire. People will never have a second such "home". To avoid a catastrophe, you need to know what dangers threaten humanity, a particular country, people, and family. How to find the right way out of the maze of complex contradictions that entangle the world of people? This can be done, among other things, with the help of science, international scientists, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and its centers such as the Department of Global Problems and International Relations.

Today, Russia, entering 2015, like many other countries, is in the midst of a foreign policy cataclysm. Thanks to the skillful use of not just" soft", but even" wise " power, flexible diplomacy, Moscow retains stability and dynamism in world affairs.

However, there are also threats that undermine global European security. The main threat to the world community comes from the desire of Atlanticists to put the right of force over the power of law. Turns of violence that undermine stability in world affairs appear as if ordered. One gets the impression that behind the scenes in world affairs has become more active, betting on the creation of socio-political chaos in different regions of the world, directed against the existing orders and legitimate authorities there. The goal of such a policy of creating a big mess is to counteract the consolidation of new centers of power in world affairs instead of the unipolar world that has not yet been established.

A new "cold war" seems to have already arrived. This is clearly seen in the example of the information war, when the Atlantists, in fact, established in Europe by mutual consent a de facto censorship regime for reporting on the events of the civil war in Ukraine. Everything that does not fit into the scheme of the struggle of "democracy" with "Moscow's expansion"is hushed up and distorted. The official West today pretends that it does not notice the state genocide that is being waged by the Kiev regime against the Russian-speaking population of Donbass. But this genocide gives the right to use force, including military force, to save people.

In conditions of chaos, when the threat of neo-Nazism is growing in Europe, and Islamic terrorism is rising to its full height in the Greater Middle East, the world community simply has to mobilize so that bombs and rockets do not create the history of people, otherwise it will be bloody, and the United Nations, first of all, is rightfully engaged in this. Members of the Security Council, all members of the UN General Assembly.

Further success of globalization and global governance is possible only in conditions of peace, not war. You can't drive a car if all its passengers are fighting. It should be remembered that the right does not disappear from the fact that it is maliciously violated, the payback for this will come without fail.


In my article, I use the works and statements of only Russian scientists, because they provide the most balanced assessments of the modern world order. Those political scientists who, in their research, immerse themselves in the numerous works of scientists from other countries-usually the United States and Western Europe-run the risk of becoming a shadow of views that are alien to Russia. Many scientists, especially young ones, know the liberal political science of the Atlantists better than their own, Russian ones.

60 years of academic and diplomatic work give me the opportunity to share with the readers of the magazine "Asia and Africa Today" my views on the possibility of creating an international network of international organizations.-

The article was prepared with the support of RGNF in the framework of project N 14 - 01 - 00324 "Ways of interaction between diplomacy and science in improving the effectiveness of Russia's foreign policy and diplomatic activities".

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a stable and peaceful democratic order in their native relations. In essence, it can only be used within the framework of rule 1. The basis for such a world order exists, it was established in 1945 after the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies.

This world order is laid down in the UN Charter by Soviet politicians, diplomats and scientists, American and British figures. From the very beginning, it has been under attack by Cold War sympathizers. Attempts to destroy the UN were constantly made, but it survived largely thanks to the efforts of Soviet and Russian foreign policy and diplomacy.

Studies of international relations that forget the historical experience of previous generations are not very productive. The world order established in 1945 is still preserved. The principles of the UN Charter are correct and cannot be eroded. These principles are a fusion of law and morality, and this makes them strong.

Often, however, there are scientists who, under the pressure of politics from a position of strength, bend in their views on world affairs and draw strange conclusions that the decisions of the meeting of the leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition countries in 1945 in the Livadia Palace near Yalta on the issues of the post-war structure are allegedly outdated. This, of course, is not the case.

The Yalta Conference was the highest level of peaceful cooperation between the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain. Today, of course, many things are changing, but even more in the world order remains unshakable. That leaves the UN, its Security Council, the borders of Poland, the Kaliningrad Region, and much more.

The UN Charter, the "bible" of international relations and world politics, is incorruptible, because its text and principles are sealed with the blood of millions of fighters and civilians who died in a global military conflagration. These statements may seem unconvincing, because so many years have passed since then. This defeatist approach is a big mistake.

The UN was difficult to create, it is not easy to destroy, and it will be impossible to recreate. Those who violate the principles and norms of international law remain outside the field of legitimacy, and in the end, no matter how much they puff up their cheeks today, disappear from world politics. Crimes, as we know, do not cross out the criminal code, just as they cannot negate international law. No matter how " grandiose "the masterminds of the new Cold War may be, in the end, they will most likely earn a view from the window of a prison cell.

The main role in international relations, which includes world politics, is played by States, and they are significantly influenced by other international institutions, including transnational corporations. Their field of activity is also the international environment in which people cooperate with each other, as well as their rivalry. The latter often develops into power single combats, wars of small and medium scale and intensity, and even world wars.

Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. A. Kokoshin notes that states, especially strong and influential ones, play a decisive role in world politics. It is mainly between states that the struggle for influence in the world is going on today with the help of economic, military and "soft power"2. In this conflict-ridden international environment, Russia also has to act, and quite successfully. Not only in politics and diplomacy, but also in the economy, the leading role is also played by states, and they also seek to rely on "soft power" in their activities, including ideological attitudes that are embedded in public and individual consciousness.

Can a person survive in this conflict-ridden international environment, where violence plays a major role, poverty and hunger are widespread? Are the political elites, including scientists and science in general, able to find the right way to create an international environment in which people, using the historical experience of previous generations, will save themselves?

These issues are of great importance for developing countries, especially those where living conditions are particularly harsh. For them, the risks of degradation and destruction of the modest wealth that they have, have ceased to be a theory, and have become everyday practice. Hundreds of millions of people are losing their chances of a prosperous life, they are waiting for changes for the better, and they are still not there. This leads to socio-economic and political explosions.

In the face of natural disasters and countless wars, the creation of a world of planetary cooperation and joint international projects has all the more come. The international community is able to curb the militaristic thinking of politicians, who often seek to redraw the geopolitical space and adjust global governance to suit themselves. Today, all states operate in a turbulent international environment, this ocean of human emotions and passions, where there is a clear desire of some people to dominate others, to extract profit for themselves, to force everyone to live according to the rules of an individual, not a multiple, one or several oligarchs, not the people.

Liberal ideology is called upon to establish such an order in the world community. It is supported by the strength of the leading capitalist States. Their policies are aimed at infringing on social, economic and political freedoms. Liberalism becomes a brake on the free development of the individual and a democratic society. The "art" of information warfare has reached the level of mass zombification of millions.

The challenges of the twenty-first century are therefore numerous. I will single out those that, in my opinion, play a primary role in the fate of humanity. This is, first of all, the fate of the person himself. People seem to know more about the universe than they do about themselves. Even less do they understand how civilizations develop, and they have a hard time finding out what they are doing.

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sometimes they find ways and means to resolve international conflicts.

New elites tend to forget the experiences and lessons learned by their ancestors, and they have a short historical memory. Vanity and incompetence, arrogance and vindictiveness, and the worship of "hard power" destroy the ability to make the right decisions. The world on Earth often appears to us as terra incognita-an unknown land.

The unknown paralyzes the human mind and teaches us that good is less likely to overcome evil. At the service of the latter is brute force, murder weapons and obedient robot men in uniform, who, when asked "why do civilians, children, women, and the elderly die from your actions?", stupidly answer: "This is my job."

What is a person, his spiritual life? The answer to this question does not explain the origin of a person, as it is known, there are great disputes about it, but rather explains human behavior, including in politics.


International relations and world politics are manifestations of people's activities. Without man, there is no civilization. There is no peace, no war. Before the end of the world, there will be silence, because the person himself will disappear.

Man is the only sentient being on Earth. Man is a spiritualized creature and therefore amazing. He lives both in the earthly world and in the heavenly, divine world.

The great Venetian Renaissance artist Titian in 1514 painted the painting "Love of heaven and love of earth", it is exhibited in Rome, in the Galleria Borghese museum. Before this masterpiece, one involuntarily reflects on the perishable and sublime in the world of people. Between the two poles of the earthly and heavenly consciousness of people is the Sphere of Life. Both poles affect it at the same time and contradictory, in our minds there is a world that is far from ideal.

Christianity calls for following the commandments of the Old and New Testaments. The earthly world must live in harmony with the love of heaven. Many Orthodox theologians wrote about this, for example, in his time, Gregory the Theologian. He defined man as a being who "ends the enmity" of the spiritual and physical. The theologian wrote: "I am made up of body and soul. And the soul is a stream of infinite light-the Godhead; and the body you produce from the dark beginning. If I am one common nature, then enmity is ended by me. For it is not hostile principles, but friendly ones, that produce a common product. " 3

The attitude towards man as a product of the "dark beginning" is typical for most religious thinkers of the Middle Ages. They saw the correct arrangement of human life in absolute submission and faith in God. Man was conceived as a creation of God (recreational view). Only with the accumulation of knowledge about the world around us, about man himself, did it become possible to recognize the evolutionary path of his development, when the emergence of intelligent life on Earth and its inevitable withering and death are thought of on the scale of hundreds of thousands and millions of years.

Correct vision of the world can not be without spiritual principles, no matter how unusual they may seem. It is more difficult to comprehend the spiritual than to experience the physical, the Earth, and the Cosmos. The spiritual and divine eludes us, even when it is obvious. With the help of intelligence, for example, you can move yourself into the past and even rush into the future. For many, such fabulous pictures awaken the consciousness, often suggesting the right decisions. People have visions of the dead, scenes from their lives, pictures of heaven or hell. In the minds of scientists, writers and poets, solutions to complex problems, interesting stories and talented verses appear in the most unexpected way. In critical situations, the rulers at the top of power sometimes have an insight, they solve the problems of peace. Isn't it all a miracle?

The science of international relations, including globalization and global governance, will not provide a real picture of the world, relying only on a range of data from the field of economics and politics. This requires a creative search. The idea of academician N. P. Shmelev, who passed away prematurely, is applicable to modern political science. He rightly remarked: "... world economic thought seems to be completely confused about whether to turn to the right or to the left, but also for the future, if world theory and practice are still destined to find a way to live that will finally ensure a crisis - free, efficient and socially just development for the world."4

In this conclusion, the idea of social justice is particularly valuable, because it is often forgotten. This also applies to political science, if it pursues the goal of changing our lives for the better, preserving human civilization. This is achievable in the conditions of cooperation between the spiritual and material principles of the universe. They are two sides of human existence. You can't explain the world of people with just numbers and graphs and fancy phrases.


Globalization and global governance have become an important phenomenon in international life. A detailed analysis of foreign policy in the era of globalization is given, for example, in the work of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences I. S. Ivanov "Foreign Policy in the era of globalization". It explores possible configurations of the world order, and discusses the need to build a flexible polycentric system of global governance. World politics is assessed taking into account security threats, the conclusion is made about the fundamental role of international law in shaping the new world order, and the United Nations becomes its central element.5

Globalization as a natural-historical process of analysis-

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It is analyzed in the fundamental work of A. N. Chumakov "Globalization. Contours of a holistic world", which examines its general theory and the sphere of confrontation between various forces and interests 6. It is rightly emphasized that globalization is a very complex phenomenon, and it should be studied not in fragments, but in a holistic way. Against this background, a global worldview is being formed, which helps to understand globalization as a state, process and phenomenon.7

I'll tell you for myself. Globalization is a multi-faceted integration process of the formation of the modern life order and architecture of world politics in international relations. This process involves States, their coalitions, social, political and economic institutions, as well as military blocs. In the context of globalization, global management (regulation) of the planetary network structure is carried out, where unipolarity is weakening. The United States is making persistent attempts to restore it, but they are futile, moreover, they are harmful, because they undermine the stability of world politics.

The impact of globalization on world affairs is declining in the face of repeated economic and financial crises. Power conflicts pose great risks to it and global governance. In the context of acute international conflicts, global governance, including at the regional level, becomes difficult to implement. This is shown, in particular, by the events in Ukraine, where the civil war threw the country into the abyss of crisis and moral collapse.

There was a need for a moral code for humanity. Scientists are sounding the alarm. For example, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. A. Huseynov recalls that compliance with moral prohibitions depends on the will and determination of the individual to follow them: "... if a person is convinced of the moral essence of the ban, if he knows that it must be unconditionally observed, then nothing, no external circumstances, just like no his own affections cannot prevent him from following them"8. This applies to all morally sanctioned prohibitions, including such fundamental ones as"Thou shalt not kill." A person especially marked by authority cannot violate this sacred truth, this truth of truths9. Many politicians, and even diplomats, do not think about all this and do not fight against international crimes, and sometimes they commit them themselves.

Yet not everything is going badly in world affairs. Positive things are making their way, trends that are sustainable:

- international law is developing, a single world economy is emerging, universal environmental dependence and global communications are being established;

- there is a spiritual and civilizational rapprochement of nations. This is possible under the rule of law;

- the revolution in computer science and telecommunications is gaining momentum. It dramatically increases the mobilization effect of communication.

Globalization made its full impact in the last third of the twentieth century, when the information technology revolution took place. It is fraught with many surprises and scenarios for the development of the world in its development.

Globalization also brings many risks to people. There are, for example, ecological limits to industrial growth, and an overload of the natural capabilities of the environment is dangerous. There is a threat of moral degeneration and dangerous mass behavior. Humanity needs a stable moral code. In many ways, it is laid down in the UN Charter, in its principles. Globalization can humanize international relations, politicians and business people.

Globalization creates many important challenges, such as avoiding unemployment. In the world, including because of it, a broad protest movement is growing, the social fabric of established societies is being destroyed, historical heritage is being forgotten, and historical memory is being erased. Globalization still does not have a stable ideological concept that would unite humanity in the face of the challenges of the twenty-first century, and not divide it. People are looking for a road to a conflict-free world, but so far they haven't found it. This requires sobriety of judgment and even wisdom.

With the reconstruction of the world, it is better not to rush. Wars and revolutions make the history of mankind fast. When assessing globalization and global governance, the role of the State, its sovereignty and participation in global governance in the world order should first be assessed. Will this role really continue, or is it destined to weaken and disappear?


The scientific community, as a rule, assesses the state of the international environment from the standpoint of optimism, believes that humanity has entered a planetary era in its development. There are good reasons for this. And the main one is globalization, which is often regarded not as a process of continuous development, but as a kind of liberal model that successfully regulates the global financial and economic market.

The point of view is also expressed that the market should not be contrasted with state policy and regulation. In domestic and foreign policy, you can successfully use the capabilities of the state, its institutions and mechanisms. In Russia, however, the state's withdrawal from the economy has "gone too far" 10.

Academician N. P. Shmelev came to an important conclusion that one of the components of the success of the economic strategy of developing countries, including Russia, is the financing of the investment process through both private and public channels. He stressed that social policy is an important condition for successful economic growth, without it " economic miracles do not happen." Shmelev concluded: "... the main modernization task of any modern government-

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Whether it is democratic, semi-democratic,or even authoritarian, we need to find a combination of these factors that will provide these conditions for an economic breakthrough, not in words or propaganda, but in practice."11

In the old centers of power-the United States and Europe-a kind of deindustrialization has been observed for a number of years, and the West, as the main industrial base of the world, is gradually weakening. Its financial centers are active, but they usually operate in conditions of financial and economic stagnation and crisis. There is a lack of transparency in many financial institutions and difficulties in assessing their risks. Against this negative backdrop, the US and Europe are losing ground. In the global financial system, the United States still holds the palm. When the next economic collapse and devaluation of the dollar occur, the United States will reduce its foreign policy activity.

Another trend in international relations is a slowdown in the development of international law and political globalization. Building an international legal order will, however, be difficult. On this thorny path, numerous social and international conflicts will manifest themselves. New supranational unions will appear in the world community, temporary and permanent coalitions will be established, and meetings of leaders of leading states will become more frequent.

In the international arena, despite all the changes taking place in the world, national states will remain the main players for many years to come, and their sovereignty may even increase. There will be a reversal to statism. National egoism, when "every man for himself", will be manifested regularly. Foreign policy ideologies will receive a "new registration", their goals will be masked if necessary.

The ideological and political aspects of globalization are a little-explored area. There is something to hide here. Globalization, as it is taking place today, does not help to bridge the social and economic gap between rich and poor countries, and worsens the living conditions of different societies and countries. The fruits of the global economy are unfairly distributed. This is evident in the majority of countries in Africa 12.

In Europe, one of the main consequences of globalization is rising unemployment and stagnation. The policy of neoliberal globalism worsens the conditions of life on the planet, especially in the least developed countries.

A new big mess is gaining momentum. When assessing the prospects of globalization and global governance, a contradictory situation is revealed. It turns out that globalization serves different purposes. "Humane interventionism" often turns into unceremonious intervention and, as even Z. admits, it is not necessary to do so. Brzezinski, generates "... moral deafness and indifference to the manifestations of social injustice " 13.

Another point of view is also known, it is actively pushed by liberals - the world arena is assessed as a "field of common interests", it has favorable rules of behavior for everyone. The United States remains the most active sovereign on this planetary field, and it seeks to introduce new rules, procedures, and standards that are beneficial to all in international relations. There are sharp contradictions between these "modern standards" and the norms of classical international law. For example, "humanitarian intervention" and the established norm of non-interference in the internal affairs of the state.

Today, world leaders justify their actions in every possible way and seek to legitimize them. New norms of international law are emerging. The role of the United Nations and its specialized agencies remains important. Countries that do not take an active part in creating a legitimate field of the XXI century will lose badly and will be forced to dance to someone else's music. They risk being left out of new coalitions and international organizations.

Leaders of African countries at the beginning of the XXI century. Realizing the need to increase the level of cooperation among themselves, they decided to create the African Union (AU). The European Union seems to have become an example for them. It was a step in the right direction. Political and economic integration, defending its sovereignty, and defending Africa's common interests in the face of the new neocolonialism will be more effective within the framework of such a coalition.

Conferences, symposia and seminars organized with the help of modern means of communication will become an important tool for creating the Architecture of international relations of the XXI century. The mobilization of scientific intelligence and political knowledge, even intuition in some ways, will be one of the most important tasks.

Few states and societies are prepared for this today, including Russia. Its impressive intellectual potential, however, does not last forever and, if not cherished, can "evaporate". It will be remembered as a time of unfulfilled hopes. In the ocean of fierce waves of globalization, Russia, if its society does not shake up, is threatened with the fate of the socio-political Titanic.

Globalization is a new system in development, it can replace the "cold war", the latter, however, is very tenacious. A tough global global economy is emerging, and the levers of control in it are still in the money vaults of the Atlanteans.

Globalization happens to lead to the strengthening of supranational institutions in politics (UN, NATO, G20, BRICS). Such structures, of course, have different fates. The UN is one thing - the most democratic planetary structure in the world. Another is NATO: a closed military bloc, which was created in 1949 as a defensive one, and today has become a springboard for offensive actions, often taken in circumvention of the UN Security Council. Such a policy brings aggressiveness, tension and elements of great disorder to world affairs.

page 6

The ideology of globalization still does not have an influential concept that would unite humanity in the face of the challenges of the twenty-first century, and not divide it. People can, if they want, find a way to international cooperation. To do this, in their development, they must carefully treat the historical heritage of their ancestors, using everything positive from it, especially from morality. Neglect of the latter leads to "arrogance of power". The stronger it is, the weaker humanity is.

Civilizations exist within their own social and international legal institutions: laws and treaties, moral values and traditions. Together, they make up a fairly stable international environment. In the process of rebuilding the world, therefore, it is better not to rush. I repeat, wars and revolutions make the history of mankind very quickly. Caution and wisdom are needed. One thing is clear: socio-economic inequality creates political chaos in the minds as well. Double standards of behavior of states on the world stage, they are like a trail of Atlanticists, destroy international stability, do not allow the rule of law to be established.

The main features of the world order are embodied in transnational interactions, an increasingly interdependent global market, and the process of regional integration and global cooperation. Within the framework of this development, new tasks arise, they become common concerns for humanity. Among them, we can distinguish:

- development of the global economy as a financial and economic facet of globalization;

- global management of the world economy and politics, their finances;

- creating a global security framework, security for all, rather than individual privileged regions or groups of countries;

- strengthening international organizations, including the UN, capable of managing global problems in all their manifestations;

- using human capital in world affairs through higher and secondary education;

- improve, not worsen, people's lives with the help of new technologies in both industry and agriculture;

- adaptation to climate change, environmental degradation, the fight against hunger, diseases and infections that plague people;

- preservation of the cultural heritage of humanity, including international law, as a means of managing and regulating international relations, primarily between states;

- creating favorable conditions for providing people, primarily in poor countries, with basic food and drinking water, as well as qualified medical care.

Without solving these problems, it is impossible to preserve the positive principles in world politics, it will be reborn in a struggle for destruction, and this will lead to the destruction of human civilization. Is there any way to prevent such an Apocalypse?

Almost everyone will answer this question in the affirmative, including high-ranking politicians. But, and this is the whole tragedy, at the same time they will say: "everything is being done correctly, predictions of the end of the world have been invented." And then: "the use of military force is just a continuation of politics." Such a persistent militaristic spasm in the minds of political elites destroys the germs of new thinking, which is absolutely necessary to create a stable and peaceful international environment where reason and law flourish.

There is another reason for the steady commitment of a number of politicians and diplomats to a policy of strength. This is the desire to preserve, as far as possible, the state of a unipolar world in international affairs, to achieve a submissive recognition that the world is ruled by one force - the United States and, when necessary, the military-political bloc of NATO.

Events in and around Ukraine have made the power trend in world politics even more dangerous. Russia's national interests and security are not recognized, and a cumbersome geopolitical adventure is being started that has nothing to do with the security of Europe. Instead of strengthening the partnership with Russia, a hopeless course has been taken to isolate it and discredit Russian leaders, especially their most powerful figure, the president.

In such circumstances, effective global governance is unlikely. The big mess in a number of regions - the Greater Middle East, Afghanistan, and Southeastern Europe-will continue to grow. Meanwhile, the charges of at least three bombs are ticking loudly - environmental, an arms race, and poverty - poverty. It's naive to think that they won't blow up anyone. Each of them can be neutralized only by joint planetary efforts.

1 For this topic, see my article in the journal" International Life", March 2012.

Kokoshin A. A. 2 Some macrostructural changes in the system of world politics. Trends for the 2020s-2030s / / Polis. Political research. 2014, N 4, р. 38, 41. (Kokoshin A.A. 2014. Some macrostructure changes in the World politics. Trends for 2020 - 2030s // "Polis" journal. Political Studies. N 4) (in Russian)

3 Globalistics. Encyclopedia, Moscow, Raduga Publ., 2003, p. 1157.

Shmelev N. P. 4 In defense of common sense // Modern Europe. 2011, No. 2 (October-December), p. 139.

Ivanov I. S. 5 Vneshnaya politika v epokhu globalizatsii [Foreign Policy in the Era of Globalization]. Moscow, OLMA MediaGroup Publ., 2011.

Chumakov A. N. 6 Globalizatsiya [Globalization]. Contours of the Holistic world, Moscow, Prospect Publ., 2014.

7 Ibid., pp. 406-407.

Huseynov Abdusalam. 8 Philosophy - thought and action. SPbGUP, 2012, pp. 306-307.

9 Ibid.

Popov V. V. 10 Strategiya ekonomicheskogo razvitiya [Strategy of Economic Development]. Moscow, Higher School of Economics, 2011, p. 25.

Shmelev N. P. 11 Decree. soch., p. 142.

12 See: Gromyko An.A. Nishcheta i golod-grani globalizatsii [Poverty and hunger: Facets of globalization]. 2014, N 10. (Gromyko An.A. 2014. Nischeta i golod - grani globalizatsii // Aziya i Afrika segodnya. N 10) (in Russian)

13 Cit. by: Russia in the diversity of civilizations, Moscow, 2011, p. 53.


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