Libmonster ID: UK-1261
Author(s) of the publication: L. D. BONEY


Doctor of Economics

Far East Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Keywords: China, agrosphere, food security problem, modernization, growth factors, biotechnologies

In recent years, the following areas of modernization of grain production have been developed in China:

1) selection and introduction of elite grain varieties together with a complex of new agricultural technologies;

2) increasing soil fertility;

3) mechanization of the main processes of grain production, primarily wheat. At the same time, attention is drawn to such a feature as the expansion of the scale of introduction of new technologies to large areas of crops.


Wen Jiabao, Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, calls the main factor in obtaining high yields over the five-year period the growth of yields based on the progress of science: for 2005-2010. grain yield increased from 46.4 centners / ha to 49.7 centners / ha1.

Introduction of agricultural science and technology achievements:

1. Selection and introduction of new,elite grain varieties. The work on breeding new, high-quality and specialized grain varieties that are in demand in the domestic and foreign markets has been developed practically since the beginning of the 2000s. Its implementation is carried out within the framework of the "Program for strategic regulation of the structure of agriculture, rural economy (2001-2010)".

Since joining the WTO, China has taken active measures to improve the competitiveness of major agricultural products. The main attention is paid to the creation of industrial belts of grain and a number of other types of products that have comparative competitive advantages on the world market. The "Program for creating agricultural production areas with comparative advantages (2003-2007)" stipulated that by 2007, the area under specialized wheat varieties should have grown to 40% of all their crops in the country, and corn-to 60%. In practice, as early as 2006, the share of elite varieties of rice, wheat, corn, and soybeans was 69.1%, 55.2%, 42%, and 65.7%, respectively.2 In 2010, high-quality rice varieties were planted on 22 million hectares, or 75% of the total acreage under crop 3. Thus, today the renewal of grain varietal material has already progressed quite far. By 2020, according to the plan, elite grain varieties should cover up to 95% of all crops.

Introduction of new elite varieties of genetically modified rice into production is becoming one of the factors of increasing grain yield and gross yield. Crops of the so-called "super rice" (chaojidao), which is varieties and hybrids of genetically modified rice bred by Chinese breeders, reached 3.5 million hectares in 2006, and China ranked 6th in the world by this indicator.4
Ending. For the beginning, see N 1.

page 20
In 2009, the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China issued official permits for the distribution of 80 new varieties of chaojidao (the so-called genetically modified types of rice in the vernacular of the Chinese), including hybrids of super rice accounted for 64.8%. These 80 new rice varieties have spread to the rice-growing areas of the Yangtze Valley, Southern China and the Northeast and, according to scientists, "make an important contribution to ensuring the country's food security."5. In 2009, the area under cultivation under Chaozdao reached 6 million hectares, or 21.2% of all rice crops in the country6.

At the end of 2010, the government awarded awards for the great achievements of a number of Chinese geneticists in the development and introduction of superris varieties. According to one of the developers, Xue Juiming, deputy director of the Institute of Crop Production at Zhejiang University, the main focus of their work, which began back in 1999, was the breeding of superris varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases, which contributes to the overall crop growth. 7 Scientists emphasize that the economic efficiency of these varieties is still low, since their seeds are quite expensive. Therefore, today they cannot directly affect the increase in gross grain yields and the quality of grain.

At the same time, recent surveys have shown that in demonstration fields on large areas, the yield of super rice varieties reaches 120 kg/ha, while in conventional rice varieties - 65 kg/ha9. So, in prov. Jilin (North-Eastern China) in the period 2004-2006, on demonstration plots and on the "implementation area" of more than 7 million mu (469 thousand hectares), the yield increase of the superris variety "Ji-mian 88" amounted to more than 100 kg/mu (14.9 c / ha), which gave an increase in gross yield of 720 thousand tons 10.

Recently, much attention has been paid to creating a system and mechanisms for introducing the achievements of agricultural science and technology into production on large areas*. The most common and effective way to introduce innovations, including new elite grain varieties and new agricultural technologies, into the production of peasant farms is the system of demonstration fields 11.

Such a field can cover contract plots of peasant farms in one or several villages. In recent years, demonstration zones have begun to appear in volosts and even counties.

In 2008, 602 such fields were created in the village, including 500 for grain (rice, wheat, corn) and 102 for oilseeds, as part of the "Innovative Project for obtaining high grain yields" put forward by the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China. In these 500 demonstration fields with a total sown area of 430,475 ha, the average grain yield was 92.2 c / ha, which is 43.35 c higher than the average grain yield of 12. In 2010, there were already 7,500 demonstration fields with a total area of 5.025 million hectares, including 1,000 fields under high - yielding wheat, or 400 more than in the previous year.

The "Innovation Project", which is implemented on the basis of a system of demonstration fields, links a number of areas of grain production intensification into a single package of 5 major links, namely:: 1) elite seeds; 2) technology for obtaining high yields; 3) control of diseases and pests;

4) scientific application of fertilizers; 5) mechanization of works 13.

State support plays an important role in this process, especially subsidies from the central budget for grain production, including subsidies for the purchase of elite seed material, subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery, complex subsidies for the purchase of agricultural means of production (fertilizers, diesel fuel, chemicals, etc.), as well as a number of tax and other benefits provided for by the State Budget. for innovative projects. The practice of several recent years has shown that in terms of accumulating experience and introducing new technologies, such a form of introduction as demonstration fields gives good results: on the one hand, it creates opportunities for balanced crop growth over large areas, on the other-it gradually connects peasant contract farms in many villages simultaneously to a new growth model, gradually increasing the intensification of production.

2. Increase of soil fertility in the main grain areas.

Intensive exploitation of arable land and high doses of mineral fertilizers and chemicals have led to a decrease in soil fertility and its pollution, which negatively affects the safety of food products; 2/3 of agricultural fields belong to low and medium productivity lands.

Today, in conditions of acute shortage of arable land, one of the main reserves for increasing yields and gross grain production is increasing soil fertility. In addition to overcoming the imbalance in the ratio of fertilizers applied (in many areas there is an overabundance of nitrogen, a lack of potash), many ways to increase soil fertility are actively promoted and implemented, especially the return of straw to the fields and balanced (scientific) fertilizer application. An important resource to China-

* With an average size of 0.5 ha for a contract farmstead in a Chinese village, the average size of a demonstration field of 10,000 mu (670 ha) is considered a very large area.

page 21
straw is considered to be the best part of the village. Today, up to 600 million tons of straw from the main grain crops are harvested, or about 60% of the total grain mass production, and only 50% of it goes back to the field as fertilizer. Even more than 10 thousand tons of straw are spent on the gasification project in the village. Chinese scientists suggested that all the remaining straw should be returned to the field to increase soil fertility. The use of grass straw is considered as the simplest, most affordable and effective means of improving the organic structure of the soil. Returning straw to the field is a whole new technology. It is more often carried out during mechanized grain harvesting, many tractors have a special device for cutting straw and correctly laying it on stubble. The campaign to return straw to the fields is becoming nationwide.

In addition to grass straw, bird droppings and livestock manure are good organic fertilizers, and up to 740 million tons of them are produced per year, but their use is decreasing.

The method of rational and balanced application of mineral fertilizers14. China has the highest mineral fertilizer application standards in the world. In 2009 they amounted to 444 kg / ha, which is much higher than in economically developed countries. At the same time, the efficiency of applied fertilizers is only 30% 15. An overabundance of chemicals has led to a serious deterioration in the ecology of soils, to a decrease in fertility. The method requires measuring the size of the field and applying fertilizers in proportion to the soil needs of a particular field area and crop. Many farmers are reluctant to accept lower fertilizer rates. A lot of explanatory work is being done, and farmers are being told that a balanced application of fertilizers gives an optimal effect, that an overabundance of the norm is dangerous for nature and for humans*. Since the calculation of the norm is quite complex, and the level of technical knowledge of farmers is low, enterprises have established the production of fertilizers in the right packages and with appropriate instructions that allow farmers to quickly master the essence of the matter.

Irrigation should be the most important factor in increasing the productivity of arable land. Irrigation systems in more than half of China's fields are in poor condition, and structures need to be repaired, reconstructed, and improved irrigation and reclamation methods. In the changing natural environment, water scarcity is becoming more acute, with groundwater sinking or disappearing in many areas, and the intensity of droughts and natural disasters has increased. In this regard, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to the selection of drought-resistant grain varieties, and a course is being pursued to conserve water resources.

In the northern provinces of China, farmers began to switch to well irrigation instead of surface irrigation through canals, which saved the 2010 wheat crop. 16 At the end of 2010, the State Council of the People's Republic of China adopted a long-term irrigation development program (2010-2020). During the period 2004-2008, the area of effectively irrigated land was increased by almost 4 million ha17, and in 2009, G. - another 1.47 million hectares 18.

3. The process of mechanization of agricultural work is gaining momentum.

Over the past few years, agricultural mechanization has been accelerating in the Northern Plains and Northeast China regions. This was largely facilitated by the adoption of the "Law of the People's Republic of China on Accelerating Agricultural Mechanization"in 200419. It marked the beginning of a new stage in the development of agricultural machinery, contributed to the creation of favorable conditions for the distribution and use of agricultural machinery, providing tax advantages for machine operators and subsidies to farmers when purchasing machinery**.

Today, subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery cover 1,330 types of agricultural machinery. If you buy one combine harvester for wheat harvesting, you can get a subsidy of 19 thousand yuan, and one large tractor with a trailer for agricultural equipment - the largest subsidy amount is 63 thousand yuan. In addition, credit institutions can provide loans for these purposes. According to the National Meeting on Agricultural Mechanization (December 2010), in 2010, subsidies from the central budget for the purchase of agricultural machinery amounted to $ 15.5 billion. RMB,

* The method of application is as follows: based on the existing level of soil fertility, calculate the volume of planned production, then, based on the calculation of the production of each 100 kg of plant products, determine the volume of soil nutrients (necessary to obtain this amount of product) and, accordingly, the required amount of fertilizers for the entire site.

* * In 2004, the state introduced 4 types of subsidies to support grain production, including direct subsidies to farmers who produce grain; subsidies for the purchase of elite seeds, subsidies for the purchase of agricultural machinery and complex subsidies for the purchase of agricultural means of production (diesel fuel, fertilizers, etc.).

page 22
what could provide benefits when buying agricultural machinery for more than 4 million peasant households? The amount of subsidies covers up to 30% of the price of purchased equipment 20.

Peasant households and cooperative organizations working in the field of providing services for agricultural mechanization receive benefits in terms of income tax, subsidies for diesel fuel, etc. This policy plays an important stimulating role in the development of agricultural mechanization in the country.

The intensification of mechanization rates in the agricultural sector is due to objective factors. First of all, the acceleration of the process of urbanization has changed the structure of the rural labor force: young labor (men and women) in large numbers went to the city to earn money, in the village there were mostly only families of the elderly and children, there was a certain shortage of labor, its quality worsened. According to available data, almost half of the young labor force has left agriculture, and in Eastern China - 3/4 of 21. Today, contract farming in many areas can adequately cope with production only by using external services. In other words, it is forced to rely on yards that provide services for the mechanization of agriculture. These services are provided in exchange for a portion of the crop or paid for in cash. Sometimes a contract plot is transferred on a paid basis to a large peasant farm engaged in grain cultivation. Thus, agriculture is developing today.

At the same time, the transition to the market and the commodification of the rural economy stimulated the emergence of commercial services, including the mechanization of agricultural work. Today, the village already has a fairly large network of agricultural mechanization services. It includes stations (or detachments) of agricultural machinery of collective economic organizations, peasant cooperative organizations for mechanization, and specialized peasant farms. In addition, ordinary peasant households, which are relatively well versed in the mechanization of agricultural work, can also provide paid services for the mechanization of field work in the nearest areas where there is a shortage of labor or/and agricultural machinery during the period of strada. These yards provide part-time mechanization services as a supplement to their main agricultural activities, and their income from mechanization services accounts for approximately 1/3 of their total income.22
With the development of the comradeship of the rural economy, the meaning of the concept of "goods" for peasants gradually increases, intermediaries and intermediary organizations have appeared and begun to function. Using various flexible forms of information and good connections, intermediaries act as a kind of link between peasant contract yards and machine operators.

In June 2010, the second stage of the "Innovative project for obtaining high grain yields" was implemented in conjunction with mechanization. This was the year when the North China Plain-the main wheat-producing area-was hit by the worst drought in 50 years. In difficult weather conditions, the government made an innovative breakthrough-it organized and conducted a nationwide campaign for mechanized harvesting of winter wheat in 8 provinces of Northern China - its main producers. The campaign was called "mechanized wheat harvesting, bypassing borders".

The goal of the campaign was to save the summer harvest and provide conditions for a good autumn harvest (mainly corn). It was equally important to move from the experiment of demonstration fields to the practice of introducing innovative technologies for grain production on a large scale, in the fields of many provinces. In addition, there was a higher goal - to test in real life the effectiveness of the Chinese concept of modernization with the specifics of China*.

In June 2010, mechanized harvesting was launched in the main wheat production areas in 8 provinces (Hebei, Shanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi). The campaign was preceded by a lot of preparatory work. In each province and district, scientists and specialists developed harvesting plans that included: organizing a network of services for mechanizing agricultural work in all participating provinces; providing material and technical conditions for the campaign (subsidies, benefits; assistance in transporting equipment; providing repairs, spare parts, diesel fuel; mobilizing all agricultural machinery for inter-district operations; finally, linking mechanization activities with the implementation of-

* Modernization based on small family contract farms by intensifying their production through the introduction of modern technologies through a wide network of production and household services to households.

page 23
We will develop a package of innovative technologies that correspond to the specific features of each region. Since all provincial administrative levels (district, county, parish, village) were involved in the organization and scientific support of the campaign, the first foundations of a region-wide network for the introduction of innovative biotechnologies were laid at the same time.

In fact, the entire existing army of agricultural machinery and machine operators (the entire network of mechanization services) of the provinces of Northern China was mobilized and involved. Only up to 440 thousand units of combine harvesters were attracted (including 280 thousand that worked alternately in all these provinces, "bypassing borders"), not counting other agricultural machinery. In difficult weather conditions, in a short time (3-5 days in one province), in order not to let the crop die, combine harvesters went on a wide front through the wheat fields of the provinces. Equipment moved from one province to another in an organized manner. The clean-up campaign began on June 1 and ran from south to north, ending by the end of June.

Numerous groups of machine operators, grouped in advance, worked according to contracts concluded with villages or with individual yards, knowing well the state of affairs on the ground and having a work plan; road passages (traffic paths) were prepared in advance for the equipment. Machine operators who participated in this campaign were previously tested for professional skills and received an official certificate of a machine operator participating in the campaign, which exempted them from paying income tax and other types of fees, and gave them benefits (cheap diesel fuel on subsidies, technical assistance, spare parts, etc.).

So, in Shandong Province, the second largest wheat crop in the province, harvesting was completed in 5 days. According to preliminary data, the province organized 140 thousand grain combines, which removed wheat from an area of 3.5 million hectares. At the same time, the province mobilized over 2.1 million units of various agricultural machinery. The level of mechanized wheat harvesting was 97%23. In Shaanxi Province, mechanized wheat harvesting required the participation of 800 thousand units of agricultural machinery 24, in prov. Henan and Hebei - 470 thousand 25

The campaign for mechanized wheat harvesting actually covered not just harvesting, but three operations of the summer harvest: harvesting itself, sowing the next crop (here, as a rule, corn) and working in the field, which included grain removal, cleaning the field from straw, preparing and applying fertilizers (including crushed straw), etc.

Although the summer grain harvest did not grow due to a severe drought, but remained almost at the level of the previous year (123 million tons), thanks to this harvesting campaign, the wheat crop was actually saved, otherwise, according to experts, 20-30% of the crop would have been lost. In addition, the timely sowing of the second crop allowed us to get a good autumn harvest.

However, the significance of this campaign goes far beyond the introduction of innovations in agriculture and the importance of saving crops.

The campaign showed, as well as the experience of demonstration fields, that the modernization of agriculture is possible if small-peasant farming with its family contract system is preserved.

The campaign "bypassing borders" demonstrated not only the expediency of overcoming administrative boundaries (i.e., mobile and efficient use of agricultural machinery), but also the possibility of overcoming the boundaries of farmers ' contract fields, which, as it turned out, are not at all an obstacle to the introduction of modern growth factors.

Chinese scientists, the Institute of Rural Development of the Autonomous Autonomous Region of China draw attention to the exceptional importance and significance of this latest campaign (for mechanized grain harvesting, "bypassing borders") as an example of the formation of a new model of two-stage management in agriculture. A model that makes the modernization of agriculture feasible and possible in the context of small contract farms, on the one hand, and on the other - in the countryside, where the shadow of hidden unemployment is almost disappearing and there is a shortage of healthy labor.26
Thus, China has begun its new biotechnological breakthrough in the food sector of agriculture, i.e., it has begun to change its development model.

That is why the last five-year period in the agricultural sector, especially in grain production, is called the "golden period"by the leadership and scientists of the PRC.

1 Report on the work of the Government at the 11th session of the NPC of the 4th convocation - http:/gov/cn/2011lh/content_1825233/htm

2 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. Liupishu. 2006-2007. p. 16.

3 Data of the State Tax Service of the People's Republic of China. 09.03.2011 (http://gov/cn/gzdt/2011-03/09/content 1820817 / htm)

4 Xin Zhongguo nongcun 60 nyandy fazhan yu bian qian (60 years of development and evolution of the New China Chinese village). Renmin chubanyie. Beijing, 2009, p. 451.

5 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. 2010. N 6. P. 17.

6 Ibid., p. 16.

7 Zhongguo gaige, 2010, No. 4, p. 78.

8 Ibid., p. 83.

7 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. 2010. N 6. P. 16.

10 Ibid., p. 17. Cit. by: Keji zhibao. 26.01.2006.

11 Nongmin Daily. 02.07.2010.

12 Ibid., 09.12.2008.

13 Ibid. 02.07.2010.

14 Ibid. 29.07.2009.

15 Zhongguo nongcun ji. 2010. N 10. P. 66; Zhongguo nongcun jingji. Liupishu. 2010-2011. p. 148.

16 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. 2010. N 10. P. 5.

17 Zhongguo tongji zhaiyao. 2010. p. 124.

18 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. Liupishu. 2009-2010. p. 19.

19 - Sinhna wang. 28.06.2004.

20 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. Liupishu. 2010-2011. p. 59.

21 Tiaocha zhongguo nongcun (Exploring a Chinese village). Zhongguo fazhan chubanshe. Beijing, 2009, pp. 31-32.

22 Internet, Prof. Cui Guojup. March 2011

23 Nongmin Daily. 12.06.2010.

24 Ibid. 14.06.2010.

25 Ibid. 02.06.2010.

26 Zhongguo nongcun jingji. 2011. N 1. P. 15.


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