Libmonster ID: UK-1287
Author(s) of the publication: M. I. GOLMAN


Doctor of Historical Sciences Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences

Mongolia Keywords:parliamentary elections 2012 .. Democratic PartyMongolian People's Party, Government

In Mongolia, the ruling Mongolian People's Party (MNP)was defeated in the June 28, 2012 elections to the Great State Hural (VGH). The Democratic Party (DP) came to power after a long break. The Democrats ' first term at the top of the state in 1996-1999 was unsuccessful. So far, they've been more successful this time.

This is evidenced by the first budget, economic and social measures, the results of local elections in November 2012, the further strengthening of partnership relations with Russia and the increase in the international prestige of Mongolia, which became the first Asian country (other than the post-Soviet ones) to be admitted to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in November 2012.


The sixth election to Mongolia's unicameral parliament, the Great State Hural, consisting of 76 deputies, after the victory of the democratic Revolution in 1990, differed from all previous elections in a number of ways.

They were conducted on the basis of the new electoral law adopted at the end of 2011. This law introduced for the first time a mixed system of elections: 28 deputies were elected on party lists, i.e. by proportional representation, and 48 - individually by majority system. The law strictly regulated the conduct of the election campaign, prohibited candidates from making populist slogans and money promises, limited the amount of expenses of candidates, etc.

For the first time, simultaneously with the VGH elections, elections to the Metropolitan Assembly of Citizens ' Representatives (SSP) of 45 deputies were held - a kind of analog of the City Duma.

For the first time, Mongolian citizens who were abroad participated in the elections. They voted on June 10, 2012 at their respective Mongolian representative offices abroad.

For the first time, an automated vote counting system was implemented at all 1906 polling stations in 26 electoral districts using more than 2 thousand purchased electronic machines.1

11 political parties participated in the elections: Mongolian People's Party( MNP), Democratic Party( DP), Civil Will - Green Party (PGVZ), Green Party of Mongolia, Civil Movement Party, Mongolian Conservative Party, Mongolian Social Democratic Party, Patriot Party, Rodina Party, Development Program Party, the Realization of Freedom Party and two political blocs: Justice (an association of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and the Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP) and the Third Force bloc (an association of the Republican Party and the Mongolian Labor Party). All of them nominated a total of 544 candidates.

The main struggle in the election campaign, which began on June 5, 2012, was between the ruling centrist MVP, which had administrative resources, large financial capabilities and extensive political experience of many years of governing the country, and the opposition center-right DP, which has close ties with Mongolian capital and the democratic president.

Both parties in their electoral platforms promised voters "golden mountains": an even distribution of income from the exploitation of natural resources, higher wages, pensions, social benefits, etc.

For example, the MNE issued the slogan "Let's live well in our homeland" and promised to increase the annual GDP per capita from the current $3,600 to $12,000 by 2016, and to build 10,000 new enterprises in the country, including coke-chemical, energy and metallurgical complexes, as part of an active industrialization policy. and thus create 300 thousand new jobs and reduce unemployment to the level of developed countries, etc.

One of the central points of her program was the promise to create a special fund of "National Wealth" to finance health, education and social benefits, and to ensure one hundred percent ownership of the richest coal deposit "Tavan Tolgoi" in the South Gobi aimag (region), which is of interest to foreign companies.2

The DP did not skimp on promises, focusing on supporting small and medium-sized businesses, in particular, promising to reduce the AML-

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tax on economic units with an annual income of no more than 1.5 billion tugriks * from 10% to 9% and pay them overpaid amounts, as well as help to increase annual production from wool, goat down, milk, etc. DP advocated the development of labor-intensive industries, for the transition to an online system when conducting tenders for development for the purpose of suppressing corruption and collusion, for mandatory consideration of the opinion of local residents when issuing licenses for these developments, etc.

And the main goal of the PD's election program, titled "Mongol 2020", was to provide citizens with genuine economic freedom and create conditions for a healthy, safe life and a stable income. In particular, the DP promised to finally resolve the issue of free privatization of land plots by citizens, which has been delayed for 10 years.3

The Justice bloc, whose main component was the center - left MPRP, formed in January 2011 by a group of breakaway politicians led by former Mongolian President Nyambaryn Enkhbayar in 2005-2008, competed strongly with the two parties. The bloc put forward the program "Five Revolutions to Save the Motherland" and successfully conducted the election campaign.

On June 28, 64.25% of 1883478 registered voters took part in the vote on the choice of the VGHA. According to the Central Election Commission, the votes were distributed as follows: for the DP - 32.53%, for the MNE - 28.32%, for the Justice bloc - 20.005%, for the Civil Will - Green party-5.9%. The Third Force bloc and all other parties did not pass the 5% threshold. Thus, 33 deputies from the DP, 25-from the MNE, 13 - from the Justice bloc, 2 - from the PGVZ and 3 independent deputies are represented in the Supreme Council of the 6th convocation.

According to the metropolitan election commission, 9 parties and 517417 voters participated in the elections to the SSP in Ulaanbaatar. Here, too, the PD won, holding 26 of its candidates in the SSP against 14 from the MVP, 4 from the Justice bloc and 1 from the Civil Will - Green party5. Foreign voters also supported the Democrats.

The elections in Ulaanbaatar were observed by 60 foreign observers - parliamentarians from 7 countries: Russia, the United States, England, Canada, Japan, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan.

All of them highly appreciated the organization of the voting process and its progress. So, the head of the Russian parliamentary delegation of 7 people, Deputy Chairman of the Federation Council A. Torshin said that after visiting 10 polling stations, he was convinced that " the elections were organized at a high level, responsibly and smoothly."6. And at meetings with the Chairman of the Central Election Commission of Mongolia N. Luvsanzhav and at a reception with President Ts. He confirmed to Elbegdorj that the Russian delegation did not find any violations, "all opportunities were provided so that every voter could vote at will... and the elections were held in accordance with the law, fairly and fairly." 7

And here is the opinion of the head of the Anglo-Mongolian Business Council, who was a member of the British Parliament for 13 years, Sir D. Grigan, who observed the voting process in the Yurt quarters of the capital: "Mongols, like the British, treat elections with great respect and responsibility and participate in voting without any confusion... In addition, Mongolia has a higher level of monitoring of voters during the voting process than in European countries, for example, double-checking the identity card, including with the help of fingerprints. They don't check as thoroughly in Europe as they do in Mongolia." And the international observer for Taiwan noted: "In Mongolia, elections are held as smoothly as in highly developed countries." 8

Overall, foreign observers concluded that "Mongolia's elections were the most democratic among other Asian states." 9


It seems that the sad outcome of the elections for the ruling party was decisively influenced by two political events that took place after the VGH elections in 2008.

This is the renaming of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), which has been ruling for more than 70 years in the country, at its VI Congress in November 2010 to the original Mongolian People's Party of 1921-1924, changing the charter and concept of the party. This caused a split and, in the words of the Mongolian press, "one of the MPRP's legs fell off." Former Chairman of the MPRP in 1996 - 2004, who became Prime Minister and then President, N. Enkhbayar and his associates left the MPRP and organized their own party, with

* $ 1 is equal to approximately 1400 tugriks (editor's note).

page 12

its own charter and program, but with the old abbreviation MPRP, which has become a brand name 10.

The party quickly gained supporters, and N. Enkhbayar ranked first among the top 10 politicians in the country. 11 A real threat loomed over the possible nomination of N. Enkhbayar as a presidential candidate in the upcoming 2013 presidential elections. And on April 13, 2012, N. Enkhbayar was arrested on charges of participating in corrupt transactions, which were politically motivated and carried out in a rough form.

The detention operation was like a detective story. At 6 o'clock in the morning on April 13, 4 police buses with 350 employees of law enforcement agencies, special forces, patrol service, etc. drove up to the house in Ulaanbaatar where N. Enkhbayar lived with his family. Masked special forces broke into the apartment, turned everything upside down, and literally dragged the former president, who was also legally protected by the state, out of the house by his hands and feet without shoes and was taken to the Gantz Hu Yaag pre-trial detention center in the Central Aimag. The authorities motivated their actions by the 10-time refusal of N. Enkhbayar to appear on a call to the Anti-Corruption Agency 12.

All this stirred up the Mongolian public, followed by protest actions, hunger strikes of solidarity, etc. On May 14, 2012, under pressure from members of the MPRP and a number of parliamentarians, as well as foreign media and even UN Secretary-General Park Ki-moon, who called the President of Mongolia Ts. Elbegdorju, N. Enkhbayar was released on his own recognizance after a 10-day hunger strike, but the investigation continued. He was denied participation in the 2012 elections, but his bloc took the 3rd place in the VGH.

The second event that contributed to the defeat of the MNE was the long-overdue exit of the DP on January 5, 2012 from the coalition government with the MNE, formed on September 12, 2008 in order to overcome the political crisis that engulfed the country due to the rigging of the 2008 parliamentary elections.* It should be noted that all these years the government worked quite smoothly and efficiently, However, dissatisfaction with the compromising policy of the party leadership grew in the ranks of the PD, and it finally decided to break off relations with the MHP. However, it was a well-thought-out step, it untied the hands of the DP, it was able to actively conduct the election campaign and achieve success.

The MHP's defeat led to the resignation of party Chairman and Prime Minister S. Batbold, General Secretary U. Khurelsuh, and the replacement of almost the entire party's 31-member Governing Council. O. Enkhtuvshin became the chairman of the party, and G. Zandanshatar became the General Secretary.


On July 16, the "congress of winners" was held - a meeting of the National Coordination Committee (NCC), which serves as the highest body of the Democratic Party in the intervals between congresses. Chairman of the party N. Altankhuyag was nominated for the post of Prime Minister, members of the NCC Z. Enkhbold and D. Erdenebat for the posts of Speaker of the Parliament and head of the DP faction in the VGH, respectively. One of the leaders of the democratic revolution of 1990, E. Bat-Uul, who was awarded the title of Hero of Mongolia, became the mayor of Ulaanbaatar.

Extension of Z. Enkhbold ,an odious figure in the eyes of the MNE members, was immediately met with strong opposition from the MNE faction, as well as the DP's proposal to form a 3-to-1 government, and it began to ignore the meetings of the VGH. This was one of the reasons for the long delay in starting the normal work of the Parliament and determining the structure and composition of the government.

The second reason was the inability of the PD to form a one-party government: this required it to have 39 deputies, not 33. There was a question of forming a coalition government. The PD categorically refused to enter into an alliance with the MNE, which sought to do so. Negotiations began between the established working groups from the DP, the Justice Bloc and the PARP, and on July 19, 2012, these parties signed an agreement on the formation of a coalition government.

The joint declaration stated: "The parties have agreed to cooperate steadily during the term of office of the current Supreme Council within the framework of the Constitution, respecting the fundamental interests of the country and the people... Joint Government activity program... It is developed by taking as a basis the program of the DP called Mongol Hong (Mongolian Man, Mongol-2020) and reflecting certain provisions from the program of the Life Party and the program of the Justice bloc - "Five Revolutions to Save Mongolia". The parties declared that they will actively and effectively cooperate, regularly and openly inform citizens about the implementation of the program " 13.

It was agreed that the government will consist of 16 ministries and 19 ministers, including the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and the head of government affairs at the rank of State Minister, with the DP receiving 12 ministerial posts, the Justice bloc - 3 and the PRSP-1.

However, the official approval of the structure and personal composition of ministers was also delayed for almost a month, because in late July-early August 2012, the newly created coalition was in danger of collapse.

On August 30, 2012, after four postponements, the trial of the Chairman of the MPRP N. N. began in the Sukha Bator district Court of Ulaanbaatar. Enkhbayarom. He was charged with abuse of office during his term as President of Mongolia, which resulted in significant material damage to MIAT Airlines and the company "Enterprise Erdenet". He was also charged with misusing television equipment provided by Japan to the main Gandantegchilen Buddhist temple and illegally privatizing the Ulaanbaatar Times newspaper, a printing house and a hotel.

N. Enkhbayar himself categorically denied all these accusations. However, the court found him guilty and, after three days of trial, on 2 August 2012 sentenced him to 4 years in prison14.

* For more information, see: Graivoronsky V. Was there an attempt at a color revolution in Mongolia? Asia and Africa Today, 2008, No. 12 (Editor's note).

page 13

The leadership of the Justice bloc immediately described the decision as" political repression " and threatened to withdraw from the coalition. However, after some deliberation, it decided to remain in the Government and on 7 August issued a statement in which it again condemned the trial as illegal and expressed its readiness to cooperate with other political forces in the name of ensuring the interests of the State.15

Finally, on August 14, N. Altankhuyaag presented Ts to the President. Elbegdorzhu structure of the new cabinet. It differs from the structure of the previous Government, which consisted of 11 ministries and 15 ministers. In order to improve operational management and increase responsibility, it was decided to divide the Ministry of Mining and Energy into two: the Ministry of Mining and the Ministry of Fuel and Energy, followed by the Ministry of Roads, Transport, Construction and Urban Development, which was transformed into the Ministry of Roads and Transport and the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development. The latter is designed, in particular, to pursue a unified policy of development of Ulaanbaatar and aimag centers, turning the latter into large centers connected to the capital by modern roads.

The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science is also divided into the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism. Finally, the Ministry of Social Protection and Labor was transformed into the Ministry of Population Development and the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Education. It is considered expedient to create a special Ministry of Economic Development on the basis of one of the government agencies in order to coordinate the actions of line ministries.

The number of government agencies has been reduced from 44 to 28, so that the total number of civil servants in ministries will not exceed 1017 people, and in agencies-360016.

On August 17, the VGH officially approved the agreed structure of the government headed by the Chairman of the DP N. Altankhuyag, as well as 12 ministers from the DP (all, with the exception of the Minister of Labor A. Gansukh, are members of Parliament). They held key positions as heads of the Ministries of Foreign Relations, Defense, Justice, Economic Development, Human Development and Social Security. Democrats also headed the Ministries of Mining, Industry and Agriculture, roads and transport, construction and urban development, education and Science, culture, Sports and tourism, and labor.

On August 20, ministers from the Justice bloc were approved: two from the MPRP - the Minister of Finance and the Minister of Health, from the MPRP-the Minister of Fuel and Energy, and from the MPRP-the Minister of Environment and Environmental Development.17

The post of Deputy Prime Minister was given to the Deputy Chairman of the MPRP, parliamentarian D. Terbishdagwa, and the head of the government Affairs Department - Ch. Saykhanbilig from DP18.

Judging by the brief biographical data of members of the new cabinet, given on the Internet and in the media, it consists of professionals with a solid education and considerable experience in government bodies. It should be noted that the government zealously, without wasting time in vain, set to work, held several meetings, ministers pledged to work 12 hours a day, and the cabinet has already been popularly called the "government of reforms".

At the same time, it seems appropriate to recall that the first experience of the Democrats in power in 1996-1999 was generally unsuccessful.

There are several reasons for this: political instability due to the almost annual change of prime ministers and the composition of the government, weak economic policy, as a result of which the country's situation at the end of 1999 in a number of indicators - domestic and foreign debt, budget deficit, foreign trade, etc. - was worse than in 1966.

And this is in the context of the "Asian" economic crisis and the terrible natural disasters that befell Mongolia in 1998-2002 - when 10 million cattle were killed.

Contradictions within the ruling Democratic Union, a bloc of the Mongolian National Democratic Party19 and the Mongolian Social Democratic Party, led to its collapse in 1999. Both parties went to the VGH elections in 2000 independently and suffered a crushing defeat. However, their defeat sobered them up, and in 2001 they merged into a single modern Democratic Party*.

* For more information, see: Golman M. I. Change of power in Mongolia // Russian Mongolian Studies. Bulletin No. 5. M, 2001, pp. 48-75.

page 14


But if in 1996 the Democrats came to power only at the very beginning of economic stabilization, now the situation is completely different, the country is experiencing an economic boom associated with the development of the mining industry - in 2011, GDP growth was 17.7%. Mongolia looks like an "island of prosperity" in the sea of raging global financial and economic crisis.

All this creates favorable conditions for the activities of the coalition government, which will have to solve many difficult tasks: putting into operation the richest Tavan Tolgoi coal deposit and the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold deposit in the South Gobi aimag, creating an industrial complex in the city of Saishand, developing infrastructure and, above all, building new railway lines, powerful construction of a large-scale railway system. development of the energy system, combating the reduction of pastures, etc.

Reducing unemployment, inflation and, of course, eliminating corruption remain pressing issues.

In our opinion, the success of the coalition government in meeting these challenges depends on the cohesion of the coalition. Instability and a potential threat to the coalition are represented by the detention of the de facto leader of the Justice bloc, the second component of the coalition government, and a large factionalism in the ranks of the main force of the Democrats - the Democratic Party, in which, in addition to the leading faction "Polar Star" N. Altankhuyag, there are 5 other different factions led by ambitious politicians who are eager to determine the main the course of the DP and, accordingly, the coalition government. A significant threat is also the possibility of strong resistance to the initiatives of the Democrats on the part of the opposition parliamentary faction of the MNE, which, by the way, hindered the work of the Democratic governments in 1996-1999.

The primary task of the Democrats remains to strengthen the coalition of the PD and the Justice bloc, in which the Mongolian National Democratic Party of M. Enkhsaikhan is closest in its views to the DP.


The 2012 parliamentary elections held in Mongolia, the formation of a democratic majority Government, and the establishment of a new standing committee on Citizens ' complaints and complaints in the Supreme Council of the Mongolian People's Assembly were, in our opinion, Mongolia's first steps towards strengthening democracy.

As the first results of the coalition government's activity showed, it started off quite energetically, showing a focus on reforms, the implementation of which will be facilitated by the victory of the Democratic Party in the local government elections held on November 21, 2012. According to the Central Election Commission, the Democratic Party won 12 out of 21 aimags, 5 out of 9 districts in Ulaanbaatar and won 546 seats in khurals (assemblies) of citizens ' representatives against 452 in its main competitor, the Mongolian People's Party.20

Now the government of N. Altankhuyag has a solid support in the province for implementing the planned changes. And they started with the Government itself, with strengthening its ties with civil society. The Democrats have set their goal to make the government as open as possible for citizens, to implement reforms with their participation.

The first steps in this direction were the introduction of monthly meetings of government members with citizens under the slogan "Reform and solve", as well as the organization of a special agency that opened its hotline for receiving applications, suggestions and complaints from citizens. This line has already received calls from 12,300 citizens, of which 5,700 received prompt answers to the questions raised.21

The Government has opened an absolutely free and undocumented entrance to the State Residence (Government House) in the center of Ulaanbaatar for visiting and exploring the State History Museum located there, which is designed to strengthen the education of feelings of patriotism and pride in the rather long history of Mongolian statehood.

Among others, according to N. Altankhuyag, the so-called small government affairs should be noted the reduction of the lunch break and work with the Internet for civil servants, the ban on all ministers, except the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to be distracted from solving internal problems on business trips abroad more than twice a year, which should lead to savings in budget expenditures, etc.item 22

At the end of November 2012, for the first time, each ministry and department reported on its activities on television, and the overall results of the first 100 days of the Democrats ' rule were summed up on November 30, 2012.

There are significant gaps in the budget, economic and social spheres.

Thus, the budget for 2013 was approved. It was first adopted within the framework of the Budget Stability Law and fully complies with the requirements and provisions of this law. In addition, aimags and somons (districts) are granted the right to dispose of budget funds at their discretion, and investment issues are resolved on the principle of direct democracy.

Of crucial importance is the agreement reached between the government and Mongol Bank on the joint implementation of a subprogram to stabilize prices for the main types of goods and products, primarily prices for meat, oil products, flour, rice, which previously, along with excessive cash payments to the population, accelerated inflation. This power of attorney is secured by signing a "Memorandum of Understanding on cooperation". All this makes it possible to plan for a reduction in inflation by the end of 2012 from 14-15% to8% 23.

In economic policy, the emphasis is placed on independence, solving economic problems on its own, which, according to experts, has now become Mongolia's shoulder.

The government successfully sells $1.5 billion worth of bonds on the international market. and in the following years, it plans to issue them for another $3.5 billion 24. This money will be used for reforms, creation of new jobs, etc.-

page 15

increasing the industrialization of the country's economy. Negotiations are underway to ensure that the interest rate on these bonds is not higher, or even lower than 3.5%.

Reduced prices for coal, which is used to heat the Yurt quarters of the capital, continues to issue monthly 20 thousand tugriks to children under 18 years of age, and from October 1, 2012 they can be transferred to accounts in any commercial bank of your choice, and not just in one of them, as it was previously. In the future, the government plans to provide this assistance through the so-called children's cards 25.

A reform of the social security and social insurance system is planned for 2013.

On November 14, 2012, Mongolia celebrated the 850th anniversary of the birth of the "father of the nation and state" Genghis Khan. According to the final data, Genghis Khan was born on the 11th of the first winter month of 1162 according to the lunar calendar. This date falls on November 14, and this day is now declared the Day of National Pride of the Mongols.

The celebration was opened by a solemn meeting in the Great Hall of the State Residence, on the stage of which 9 banners made of white horsehair, symbolizing the Mongolian state, were hoisted. The report "Temuuzhin-Genghis-the pride of the Mongols" was delivered by the President of Mongolia Ts. Элбэгдорж.

A ceremonial installation of portraits of all the great Mongol khans was held in the grand state yurt-the chamber of the "State Hearth". The Art Gallery has opened an exhibition of the best works of calligraphy "Writing of the eternal Blue Sky". The State Residence hosted the international conference "Genghis Khan and Globalization", which was opened by Prime Minister N. Altankhuyag on 26.

On November 3, 2012, the country celebrated the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Friendship Agreement between Russia and Mongolia, which declared its independence in 1911. Numerous articles and speeches of state officials, including Minister of Foreign Affairs Bold, President of the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia N. Enkhtuvshin, other prominent scientists, publicists, etc., appeared in the media, emphasizing the historical significance of this treaty, which laid a solid foundation for the further development of relations of friendship and cooperation between our peoples and played an important role in protecting the Mongolian statehood.

The newspaper Mongolia Segodnya, for example, devoted its entire double issue of November 1, 2012.27 To this event, the materials published on the pages of this and other newspapers convincingly showed that the long-standing traditions of friendship were steadily developing and enriched by the experience of comprehensive cooperation between the USSR and the MNR in both peace and war years. But if this cooperation was largely patronage-based at that time, then, since 1990, it has been built on the basis of equality and mutual benefit in the twenty-first century. It has reached the highest level, entering the phase of strategic partnership between the Russian Federation and democratic Mongolia.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia hosted an international scientific and practical conference on the topic "Agreement of Friendship between Russia and Mongolia of November 3, 1912 and I. Ya. Korostovets", dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the signing of this agreement and the 150th anniversary of the birth of the famous Russian diplomat, special representative of the Russian Imperial Government for negotiations with Mongolia, I. Ya. Korostovets 28.

On November 15, 2012, Ulaanbaatar hosted meetings of the councils of Russian-Mongolian joint companies-the Enterprise Erdenet Mining and Processing Plant and Mongolrostsvetmet-under the chairmanship of the head of the Russian part of the councils, General Director of the Russian Technologies State Corporation S. V. Chemezov and the Chairman of the State Property Committee of Mongolia, Head of the Mongolian part of the Councils Ts. Nanzaddorj. The results of the activities of the Companies Erdenet and Mongolrostsvetmet for 9 months of 2012 were heard, business plans for 2013 were approved, social support measures, infrastructure modernization plans were considered, and a number of personnel decisions were made.29

Mongolia's accession to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in November 2012 is considered a significant event in Mongolia.As noted above, Mongolia became the first Asian country to be awarded this honor. This increases its prestige and expands the range of its activities in the international arena.

The coalition government of N. Altankhuyag has already earned the reputation of "reformist" among the people, and the future will show how much it will manage to preserve this reputation.

1 Mongolia today. News. 29.06.2012.

2 MONZAME. 02.05.2012.

3 Mongolia today. 10.06.2012.

4 Ibid., 30.06.2012.

5 Mongolia today. News. 02.07.2012.

6 Ibid., 29.06.2012.

7 Ibid.

8 Mongolia today. 30.06.2012. 9 Ibid.

10 MONZAME. 31.01.2011. And 12.06.2012; Mongolia today. News. 20.06.2012.

12 Mongolia today. News. 13.04.2012.

13 Ibid., 20.07.2012.

14 03.09.2012.

15 MONZAME. 07.08.2012.

16 Mongolia today. 19.08.2012.

17 Ibid., 20.08.2012.

18 20 .08.2012.

19 Not to be confused with the Mongolian National Democratic Party (originally known as the Mongolian National Party), formed in 2006 by a group of breakaway DP politicians led by M. Enheayhon. The party received its current name - MND - at the Third Congress on September 14, 2011.

20 MONZAME. 03.12.2012.

21 Mongolia today. 2.12.2012.

22 Ibid.

23 Mongolia today. News. 11.10.2012.

24 Mongolia today. 2.12.2012.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid., 16.11.2012.

27 Ibid., 1.11.2012; See also the newspapers: Onoder (Segodnya), Ardyn erh (Narodnoe pravo), Mongol medee (Izvestiya Mongolii) and others for November 1-3, 2012.

28 News from the Russian Embassy in Mongolia

29 Ibid. -


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